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Purpose and History Paper

Write a 700- to 1,050-word, double space


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Purpose and History Paper

Write a 700- to 1,050-word, double spaced, paper that examines the purpose and history of penitentiaries. Include the following:

  • History of punishment
  • History of prison development
  • Comparison of the Pennsylvania system and the Auburn system
  • Impact and involvement of prison labor over time

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

This paper must be in your own words....I good introduction and conclusion


Running head: Punishment History of punishment

 

Punishment is the act of inflicting a consequence (pain or penalty) on someone as a result

 

of wrong doing, consequence or penalty itself. Punishment In ancient period, a person who did something wrong in the community was punished in

 

the physical environment where everyone could watch for the purpose of specific and general

 

deterrence.

 

The society played a bigger role in punishing offenders. The criminal punishment in the

 

past (ancient) was administered in form of public humiliation, exile, flogging, branding,

 

mutilation, and transportation among other forms, Weinstein, D., & Bell, R. M. (2010).

 

In 17th Century, death penalty was implemented in England. Many reforms followed

 

based on the enlighten principle as which used reason and deductive logic to solve problem in a

 

humane way. This actually laid the groundwork for use of imprisonment to replace traditional

 

punishments. In 20th century United States implemented Incarceration sentence to replace the

 

old traditional ones and currently there is the existence of incarceration sentence worldwide.

 

History of prison development

 

Prison did not exist before 1700s because it was not considered a serious punishment for

 

crime and there it was rarely used and the government imprisoned people awaiting trial before

 

they receive corporal punishment or common punishment which was branding, imposing fines,

 

whipping and the death penalty among other forms which were used. Punishment of offenders by

 

authorities was carried out in the public for deterrence purpose, Lewis, O. F. (1922)

 

English and French rulers placed their opponents (enemies) in such prisons for example

 

in London and Bastille in Paris. Those individuals who owed money were placed in debtors?

 

prisons. The offender?s families were at liberty to visit them and stay with them as they pleased

 

as long as they were to leave in the evening. They had to stay in prison until debts were full

 

settled. Punishment In 1700s, several people criticize the use of executions, mutilations among other forms of

 

inhuman punishments. This was the beginning of early prison reform. Prison reforms still

 

continue up to date.

 

Comparison of the Pennsylvania system and the Auburn system

 

i) Pennsylvania system

 

This system was based principle of solitary confinement. It actually fostered penitence

 

and its main goals were encouraging reformation. They applied separate philosophy. Prisoners

 

were actually kept in solitary confinement in the cells, Baldwin, B et al, (1995)

 

A yard for exercise which was enclosed was attached to each cell for the purpose of

 

preventing contact among prisoners. Prisoners were not allowed to see anybody a part from the

 

institutional officers and occasional visitors only.

 

Performance of work such as shoe making and weaving was introduced at a later state of

 

solitary penitence.

 

Pennsylvania system collapse because was too costly and yet it didn?t produce the desired

 

results as most of those who were placed there reoffended after completing their sentence. The

 

sentence had deleterious effects on the minds of the prisoners because of the conditions there.

 

In this system, there was no classification of offenders according to the nature of crime

 

which they committed neither first time offenders nor repeat offenders. Punishment ii) Auburn system.

 

This system actually incorporated Quaker ideals of reformation. The works was actually

 

hard labor which mostly included construction of roads and buildings. Inmates used to march in

 

unison which still exists in the current century, De Beaumont, G et all (1833)

 

Prisoners are allowed to stay together sided by side during meals, prayers but at night,

 

they had to return to solitary cells. Strict routines were to be followed without any failure.

 

Silenced is enforced all the times even among the groups form punishment and

 

reformation.

 

Auburn y succeeded due to introduced tier system. In this system, different level of cells

 

was built above one another. The convicts were then housed according to the category of offense

 

each committed. First time offenders were separated from repeat offenders, murders were

 

separated from thieves; assaulters were separated from robbers among other categories which

 

were designed.

 

Inmates were made to wear uniform of different colors depending on their classification.

 

As a result of working, some income is generated. Auburn system was cost effective than

 

Pennsylvania system. Inmates were actually given freedom to interact during the day in groups. Impact and involvement of prison labor over time

 

Prison is a correctional institution. Prison labor is used as a form of punishment as well as

 

rehabilitation. The main aim of prison labor is to prevent re-offending, Haney, C. (2003). Punishment Those in prison are made to work for overtime with the aim of reforming their antisocial

 

behaviors and the same time punishing them. The impact is a follows: Reduces chance of re-offending ? After completing the sentence, most of the offenders

 

do not re-offend especially those who are not hardened criminals. Raising capital for the state ? They usually do a lot of work for example in carpentry

 

which when sold, more capital will be gotten and thus will assist the state in running its

 

programs. Experience ? It makes prisoners to gain a lot of experience and thus after completing

 

their sentence, they will go and start working for longer hours thus earning good money

 

as they will be so experienced. Health effects ? It has some health effects and even to make the matter worst is that,

 

some prison conditions and the kind of food the take daily will affect them further. Deterrence ? The level of crime will reduce in the society since people will fear prison References

 

Weinstein, D., & Bell, R. M. (2010). Saints and society: The two worlds of Western

 

Christendom, 1000-1700. University of Chicago Press.

 

Lewis, O. F. (1922). The Development of American Prisons and Prison Customs, Prison

 

Association of New York.

 

Baldwin, B., Collins, M., Eisner, A. (1995, November), Proceedings of the 6th conference on

 

Message understanding (pp. 177-191). Association for Computational Linguistics.

 

De Beaumont, G., & De Tocqueville, A. (1833). On the Penitentiary System in the United States:

 

And Its Application in France; with an Appendix on Penal Colonies, and Also, Statistical

 

Notes. Carey, Lea & Blanchard. Punishment Haney, C. (2003). The psychological impact of incarceration: Implications for post-prison

 

adjustment. Prisoners once removed: The impact of incarceration and reentry on

 

children, families, and communities, 33, 66.

 


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