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Running head: PROPOSAL FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE Implementation strategy for Electronic Health Record in the Healthcare facilities incorporating

 

human factors engineering principles

 

November 15, 2016 PROPOSAL FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE 2 Abstract

 

An electronic health record is an automated way of storing patient information within a

 

database. This method of storage allows the medical records of all patients in the database to be

 

shared through a controlled network of medical institutions. The records are in digital format;

 

they require to be coded to protect the patient?s information. The EHRs contain a comprehensive

 

outlook of the patients in the database. The records help at ensuring quality management,

 

providing evidence when making decisions, and reporting the outcome. Medical institutions that

 

have integrated this mode of data storage increase safety in the organizations' practices. The

 

report evaluates the case for EHRs as a way to improve healthcare in the country. Section A: Problem Description

 

AT& T organization is a very busy public hospital whose primary business is to offer

 

orthopedic services. Due to a large number of customers visiting the hospital every day, the

 

medical records for all the patients continue to pile, as the medical information is being filed

 

manually. Because of this, the Front Office Receptionist continues to have a hard time and

 

cumbersome to open the different folders carrying patients' the files. Being as hard as that, it

 

implies that the delivery of the services in the hospital does not occur in a satisfactory manner

 

(Selg & Rihel, 2007).

 

The problem of doing the service delivery manually in the hospital has had far-stretching

 

effects to both the hospital and the clients. For the hospital, the slow service delivery has

 

constantly jeopardized the customer relations aspect of the organization. The manual input of PROPOSAL FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE 3 data is time-consuming; when a client visits the hospital and takes the whole day waiting for the

 

staff to retrieve his or her files and go through the records, next time, he or she will opt to a

 

different hospital. For the clients, on the other hand, someone with a critical health condition

 

may not be saved just because his or her medical records are lost. Therefore, the absence of

 

efficient medical coding can worsen the terms of the patient.

 

The problem resulting from the lack of medical coding system in the hospital mainly

 

affects the Front Office Receptionist. The front office receptionist is the person who is

 

responsible for the production of the medical information for the different clients getting into the

 

hospital.

 

There are a lot of consequences if the problem is ignored. By ignoring the problem, it is

 

very likely that the service delivery in the hospital will continue to be slow. The amount of work

 

for the front office receptionist will continue to increase, and become too much for him or her. As

 

a result, the receptionist will strain each day, trying to serve all the clients. The working status

 

and workload for the receptionist need to be improved/reduced. The hospital will generate less

 

than the expected income. Also, there is reduced financial profits as the manual system of storing

 

patients? details will not serve the clients at a proper rate (Heerkens, 2002).

 

Voice of the Customer Analysis or Market Analysis is also evident as far as this problem

 

is concerned. With the absence of the medical coding equipment in the hospital, the customers

 

continue to complain that they do not receive the services in a satisfactory manner. Some

 

complain that their records occasionally get lost. Others say that they have to queue for long

 

hours before they can be attended to, while other still complain of their medical documents

 

which have been torn or soiled. PROPOSAL FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE 4 Section B: Literature Support

 

From the Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management, it is evident that the

 

implementation of electronic health management would promote the growth of private medical

 

institutions. Private physicians would provide better quality healthcare to the patients. Record

 

keeping would become efficient, and the entity would minimize the losses incurred due to

 

reimbursement coding (Kumar & Bauer 123). It is also evident that the cost associated with an

 

implementation of EHRs is small compared with the benefits that can be derived from them

 

(Kumar & Bauer 123).

 

Daniel et al.?s article reveal that 77% of the participants interviewed has basic knowledge

 

concerning the use of technology in handling the patient's information (Gaylin et al. 924). The

 

research also shows that a significant percentage (78%) of the patients prefer the use of EHRs

 

(Gaylin et al. 922). Most of the respondents believed that the implementation of EHRs would

 

reduce the cost of medical care. American respondents that believe electronic medical records

 

would lower the cost of medical care constitute 59% of the sample (Gaylin et al. 923). The

 

research shows that most patients prefer the use of electronic medical records (Gaylin et al. 924).

 

Implementation of EHRs has its demerits in that the client?s privacy may be breached if

 

hackers retrieve the user?s information (Jacques 453). The article by Jacques shows the dangers

 

associated with EHRs and the government?s efforts to reduce the risks. The Jacque?s article

 

further designates that the benefits derived from information technology outweigh the demerits

 

(Jacques 454).

 

The survey conducted in the editorial, Annals of Internal Medicine shows that only 14%

 

of the U.S' hospitals implement computerized record keeping with the figure dropping to 3% in PROPOSAL FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE 5 all practices (Baron 698). Although the implementation of computerized health records has

 

numerous benefits, its application needs to be enhanced, to realize benefits (Baron 698).

 

The adoption of EHRs will facilitate sharing of medical information across hospitals.

 

Thus, the hospital will be able to track the payment and charges associated with the patient. The

 

mode of treatment used incase of referrals is documented together with the the patient?s medical

 

history. This documentation enables the physicians to use effective methods to treat the patient

 

thus eliminating the redundancy in the treatment offered by the previous treatment. The

 

physicians would benefit from using the EHRs by saving their operational costs.

 

Medical errors that may jeopardize the medical doctor's license can be avoided through

 

computerized maintenance of patient records. Medical mistakes that are prevented through the

 

registers include documented allergies in the patient's records. Some patients may have allergies

 

to some medication, and therefore the need for the records to save the patient's life. For a private

 

physician, the implementation of computerized health records will increase the client base

 

(Kumar & Bauer 123).

 

The physician can improve his record of accomplishment through improved healthcare. It

 

can be compared to advertising ,whereby the patients recommend the medical institutions to their

 

friend. Implementing electronic medical records will allow physicians to make informed health

 

decisions when treating the patient.

 

The cost-benefit approach has been used in the Journal of Revenue and Pricing

 

Management to justify the implementation of EHRs. The costs associated with using the EHRs

 

relate to the maintenance costs, the cost of the hardware and software to be implemented in the

 

institution, and the installation costs. The benefits derived from the system outweigh the costs.

 

The organization will benefit from reduced transcription cost since in the United States, up to PROPOSAL FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE 6 $12 billion are used annually in transcription of related expenses (Kumar & Bauer 123). The

 

physician can divert the money saved from transcription expenses to enhance the health facility

 

(Kumar & Bauer 123). The physician will handle the revenue loss in the business through

 

reimbursement coding (Kumar & Bauer 123). Reimbursement from government and insurance

 

firms are accurate when EHRs are used. The entity reduces the cost related to using the

 

conventional chart system. The physician in a private medical institution saves on filing space

 

and cost of maintaining the medical records.

 

The second article by Daniel et al. evaluates the public?s opinion towards the use of

 

EHRs (Gaylin et al. 920). The increase in technological advances in other sectors has allowed the

 

public to benefit from efficient services at a reduced cost. Prior studies pertaining technology in

 

the health sector show a low reception to the concept (Gaylin et al. 925). The growth in

 

information technology sector is anticipated to produce better reception due to the increase in

 

awareness. For a private physician, evaluation of patients? wants and providing quality health

 

care should be focused on before implementing changes to the entities operations (Gaylin et al.

 

921).

 

The public is aware of the merits associated with information technology and its effects

 

on the quality of healthcare. The physician should implement the technology to increase the

 

client base (Gaylin et al. 922). The research was conducted through telephone (Gaylin et al. 923).

 

The research targeted the technologically informed members of the public. The resulting

 

highlight that the public opinion favors information technology (Gaylin et al. 924).

 

The patient's health record contains the patients' personal information accumulated over

 

time. With the implementation of EHRs, the information is stored in the hospitals' network. This

 

exposes the confidential patient information to hackers; the patient is entitled to confidentiality PROPOSAL FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE 7 according to the law. Lauren Bair evaluates the challenges associated with EHRs in the third

 

article. The article evaluates the government?s efforts to handle the challenges associated with

 

information technology to make the process safe (Jacques 445).

 

Private physicians risk the client?s private information being retrieved by unauthorized

 

people. This breaches the client?s right to privacy. The US government has implemented many

 

controls to ensure that eradication of the vice without success. Client?s information and EHRs

 

depend on one another to ensure quality healthcare. The patients should understand the risk

 

associated with their privacy and weigh the dangers they may be exposed to in both cases

 

(Jacques 440). EHRs implementation by the private physician should ensure the client

 

understands the information and the benefits (Jacques 441).

 

EHRs are meant to improve healthcare through the evaluation of a patient?s medical

 

history before administering treatment. The medical information may be lengthy and may cost

 

the patient time. The time taken by the physician to go through the medical records may be spent

 

to attend to other patients (Baron 697). The editorial from the Annals of Internal Medicine

 

evaluates the need to implement other systems to complement EHRs (Baron 697).

 

The article evaluates the efficiency of information systems in the medical sector and the

 

organization implementing IT into its operations. The survey of regional health information

 

organization shows the need to improve implementation of computerized records (Baron 698).

 

Section C: Solution Description

 

EHRs method of storing patient information will assist the medical institutions to

 

enhance their control over the revenue. Revenue enables organizations to run their business

 

efficiently and effectively. The health sector faces many challenges in its revenue control due to PROPOSAL FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE 8 its unique nature. The medical institutions account for their activities, different from other profit

 

oriented sectors (Kumar, Sameer, & Ken Bauer 120).

 

The adoption of EHRs will facilitate sharing of medical information across hospitals.

 

This will enable the hospital to track the payment and charges associated with the patient. The

 

mode of treatment used in case of referrals is documented together with the patient?s medical

 

history. This enables the physicians to use effective methods to treat the patient other than

 

redundancy in the treatment offered by the previous treatment. The physicians would benefit

 

from using the EHRs by saving their operational costs.

 

Medical errors that may jeopardize the physician?s license can be avoided through

 

computerized maintenance of patient records. Medical errors that are prevented through the

 

records involve documented allergies in the patient?s records. Some patients may have allergies

 

to some medication thus; the records may save the patient's life. For a private physician, the

 

implementation of computerized health records will increase the client base (Kumar et. al. 123).

 

The physician can improve his record of accomplishment through improved healthcare. It

 

can be compared to advertising, whereby the patients recommend the medical institutions to their

 

friend. Implementing electronic medical records will allow physicians to make informed health

 

decisions when treating the patient.

 

The cost benefit approach has been used in the journal of revenue and pricing

 

management to justify the implementation of EHRs. The costs associated with using the EHRs

 

relate to the maintenance costs, the cost of the hardware and software to be implemented in the

 

institution, and the installation costs. The benefits derived from the system outweigh the costs.

 

The organization will benefit from reduced transcription cost since in the United States, up to

 

$12billion are used annually in transcription of related expenses. The physician can divert the PROPOSAL FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE 9 money saved from transcription costs to enhance the health facility. The doctor will handle the

 

revenue loss in the business through reimbursement coding. Compensation from government and

 

insurance firms are accurate when EHRs are used. The entity reduces the cost related to using the

 

conventional chart system. The physician in a private medical institution saves on filing space

 

and cost of maintaining the medical records.

 

The second article by Daniel evaluates the public?s opinion towards the use of EHRs. The

 

increase in technological advances in other sectors, has allowed the public to benefit from

 

efficient services at a reduced cost. Prior studies pertaining technology in the health sector show

 

a low reception to the concept. The growth in information technology sector is anticipated to

 

produce better reception due to the increase in awareness. For a private physician, evaluation of

 

patients? wants and providing quality health care should be focused on before implementing

 

changes to the entities operations (Jennifer, et al. 922).

 

The public is aware of the merits associated with information technology and its effects

 

on the quality of healthcare. The physician should implement the technology to increase the

 

client base. The research was conducted by telephone. The research targeted the technologically

 

informed members of the public. The result highlight that the public opinion favors information

 

technology.

 

From the Journal of revenue and pricing management, it is evident that the

 

implementation of electronic health management would favor the growth of private medical

 

institutions. Private physicians would provide quality healthcare to the patients. Record keeping

 

would become efficient, and the entity would minimize the losses incurred due to reimbursement

 

coding. It is also evident that the cost associated with an implementation of EHRs is low

 

compared from the benefits that can be derived from them (Kumar, et. al. 123). PROPOSAL FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE 10 Daniel?s article revels that 77% of the participants interviewed has basic knowledge

 

concerning the use of technology in handling the patient?s information. The research also shows

 

that a large percentage (78%) of the patients prefer the use of EHRs. Most of the respondents

 

believed that the implementation of EHRs would reduce the cost of medical care. American

 

respondents that believe electronic medical records would lower the cost of medical care

 

constitute 59% of the sample. The research shows that most patients prefer the use of electronic

 

medical records (Jennifer, et al. 933).

 

Implementation of EHRs has its demerits in that the client?s privacy is bleached in case

 

hackers retrieve the user?s information. The articles show the dangers associated with EHRs and

 

the government?s efforts to reduce the risks. The article further shows that the benefits derived

 

from information technology outweigh the demerits (Jacques 453).

 

The survey conducted in the editorial, Annals of internal medicine shows that only 14%

 

of the U.S' hospitals implement computerized record keeping with the figure dropping to 3% in

 

all practices. Although the implementation of computerized health records has numerous

 

benefits, its implementation needs to be enhanced, to realize benefits (Baron 698). Section E: Implementation Plan

 

How patient database is created:

 

Life cycle of electronic health record is made up of three stages; they include the

 

following initiation, acquisition, and consolidation stage.

 

Initiation stage PROPOSAL FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE 11 Small, industrial ventures, reacting to predictable pain in diligence, focus on a specific

 

position, for example, patient records and provide it with proprietary software. They try to act in

 

response to distinctive language, makeup, and processes connected to an industry (Petch, 2008).

 

As the responsiveness of their products along with their integrity grows, they influence the

 

understanding they have added serving their established base of clients and apply growing

 

revenues to advance the progress of their product also attempt to extend into the other field of the

 

industry.

 

Acquisition stage:

 

As their sales start to legalize the existence of actual need, entrepreneurs draw attentionlarge firms that seek to take advantage of the materializing market and construct in the lead of

 

their own potentials and product like compatible software, data gathering devices, for example,

 

barcode readers. Acquirers' complexity draw closer when they attempt to integrate different

 

software that was produced using a distinct language, operating systems, as well as hardware

 

platforms (Danabedian & Gilmore, 2003).

 

Consolidation

 

Is the ultimate stage in which successful firms make conclusions on the residuals in the

 

market or leaving it, and in which only some surviving firms develop into standards for the

 

manufacturing. The reason for dividing database creation into three stages is to enhance

 

efficiency; traceability should complications arise, and for security purposes.

 

Section D: Change Model PROPOSAL FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE 12 An electronic health record is a computerized way of storing patient information within a

 

database. This method of storage allows the medical records of all patients in the database to be

 

shared through a controlled network of medical institutions. The records are in digital format;

 

require to be embedded to protect the patient?s information. It is thus inferred that, technology

 

has facilitated many changes around the globe. The changes have affected many industries,

 

including the health sector. Technology facilitates the quality of healthcare and enables reduction

 

in errors affecting the institution's revenue.

 

One of the changes in this case is that the development of electronic health records to do

 

code the medical records of the patients in the hospital will ease the work of front office

 

receptionist in busy hospitals by being able to use the application to achieve accurate and

 

convenient keeping of records. The adoption of this technology by the office receptionist may be

 

slow if the receptionist is not given the necessary training on how to handle the technological

 

innovation. Therefore, for the hospital staff to adjust to this model easily, they have to be trained

 

on how to code the all the manually recorded data into electronic forms, how to interpret the

 

coded data and how to apply the coded medical records in the practical settings

 

Section F: Evaluation

 

The proposed evaluation strategy must comply with the set standards. One of these

 

standards is Comité Européen de Normalization: This standardization is in Europe, and it is set

 

by the European Committee for Standardization, which is the officially competent organization

 

of the European. In the healthcare position, Comité Européen de Normalization standards are

 

recognized for medical strategies, (Harrison & Coussens, 2007). Healthcare service provider also

 

uses European standards, such as the EN ISO 9000 administration standards to confirm their PROPOSAL FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE 13 organization. Some healthcare professions are now crucial in European standards the

 

professional necessities for service to patients (Harrison & Coussens Ch, 2007).

 

Health level seven standards: This standard is based in the United States of America.

 

Unlike Comité, Européen de Normalization, Health level seven have different versions. It is

 

dominantly used in North America and Europe. Health level seven specifies several flexible

 

standards, guiding principle, and styles by which different healthcare structures can correspond

 

to each other. Such guiding principles or data standards are a set of regulations that permit

 

information to be forwarded and processed in a systematic and consistent way. These

 

information standards are meant to permit healthcare institutes to share easily clinical

 

information. Hypothetically, this aptitude to exchange information should help to reduce the

 

trend of medical care to be geographically separated and highly variable, (Danabedian &

 

Gilmore, 2003). Health level seven also creates document, conceptual and application standards.

 

Lastly is the American society for testing and materials, which originated from the

 

America Chapter of the International Association for Testing and Materials of 1898. The

 

organization is not profiting based; it offers voluntary services. The American society for testing

 

and materials has six principles, which include standard test method, standard specification,

 

practice, terminology, guide, and standard classification. It is dealing majorly with surgical

 

implant specifications.

 

The role of accreditation bodies is to help in setting national standards: Accreditation is

 

the procedure through which a free and legalized organization certify the quality system and

 

capability of the health institutions on the line of predefined standards. It is carried out on a

 

regular basis to enhance keeping of standards and dependability of outcomes created to sustain PROPOSAL FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE 14 clinician reports. These bodies also assist in the development of accreditation programs; they

 

clarify areas to be covered by accreditation standards and identification of customers.

 

7. Project Plan Rationale Electronics Health Records are sets of software applications planned to improve the cost

 

of safety and patient protection. It offers a graphical user interface, which allows improved

 

entering to essential clinical information, direct entry of data by clinicians and additional users,

 

and clinical decision support tools at the tip of care. The electronic health record is generated

 

within the set up of a hospital or any health institution. It helps in data entry, maintenance, and

 

efficiency in data retrieval. It entails the following information, patient demographics,

 

improvement notes, precedent medical information, tribulations, important signs, immunization,

 

laboratory information, plus radiology information (Petch, 2008). Electronic health record

 

computerizes and rationalizes the doctor?s workflow. Electronics health records have the

 

capacity to create a whole record of a clinical patient encounter and sustaining other care related

 

operations either directly or circuitously through the interface concurrently. The operations can

 

be evidence based pronouncement support, quality administration, as well as outcomes reporting.

 

Appendix

 

Timeline

 

Activity Duration Draft Proposal 1 month Identification of the sponsors 3 months Sponsors interview 2 weeks Collection of funds 1 month PROPOSAL FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE Initiation stage 2 weeks Consolidation stage 2 weeks Recording of data 2 weeks Data Analysis 2 weeks Final Reporting 2 weeks 15 PROPOSAL FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE 16 References Bidgoli, H.,2004, The Internet Encyclopedia, Volume 1. New Jersey, N J: John Wiley and Sons

 

Garabedian, M., & Gilmore, G., 2003, Spacecraft Thermal Control Handbook: Cryogenics

 

Volume 2 of Spacecraft Thermal Control Handbook, David G. Gilmore. New York, NY:

 

Aerospace Press. AIAA

 

Griffin, D. and Snook, D., 2006, Hospitals: what they are and how they work, Volume 10. New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

 

Harrison, M. & Coussens, Ch., 2007, Gl...

 


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 I need the paper attached put into a power point presentation. 


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