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Running head: PRESSURE ULCERS 1 Research Critique Part 1

 

Enajite M. Ejuwa

 

Grand Canyon University

 

Introduction to Nursing Research

 

NRS-433V September 11, 2016 PRESSURE ULCERS 2 Problem Statement

 

The prevalence of pressure ulcer in the United states is ranked third behind cancer and

 

cardiovascular disease. The Center for Disease Control (cdc) indicates the rate of occurrence in

 

acute care facilities is .03- 38% while in long term facilities it accounts for 3.5- 69% resulting in

 

healthcare cost of Pressure ulcers of $9.1-$11.6 billion per year. Individual patient care ranges

 

from $20,900 to 151,700 per incident of pressure ulcer. In 2007 Medicare estimated that each

 

pressure ulcer added $43,180 in costs to a hospital stay which has resulted in more than 17,000

 

lawsuits related to pressure ulcers annually The average hospital treatment cost associated with

 

stage IV pressure ulcers and related complications was $129,248 for hospital-acquired ulcers

 

during one hospital stay. With these rate of occurrence levels, the significance to the nursing profession as the primary caregivers cannot be ignored so the research was conducted to look at

 

nurses? use of critical thinking when administering care and the differences in nursing care clinical judgment as it is the ability of the nurse to make decisions that are evidence-based and also to

 

make judgment to act (Tanner, 2006).

 

Purpose of Research

 

The question promoting this research asked for a survey of the process of pressure ulcer

 

prevention and management in acute and nursing home setting so the background issues which

 

promote or deter compliance to the nation's policies and rules. The study brings to bare need to

 

make healthcare workers be aware of some areas that need further study no harm care and this

 

will close the space already in existence (Soban et al, 2011).

 

Research Question PRESSURE ULCERS 3 The research is set out to answer four main questions pose to the participant. 1, No pressure ulcer needs to occur when a patient is the hands of healthcare workers. What does this idea

 

mean to you? 2, Some patient does and some do not develop pressure ulcer in the clinical area,

 

why? 3, Is there anything that enjoins you to make prevention and management of pressure ulcer

 

number one in your care of patients? 4, Since being educated on pressure ulcer prevention and

 

management in your institution, what is your experience?

 

The questions set out for this research ask nurses their views and experiences the care of

 

patients. This study uses a qualitative approach to describe the experience of the nurses and

 

healthcare assistants (HCA) on procedure of the prevention and management of pressure ulcer in

 

acute and nursing home setting.

 

Literature Review

 

The author used an article from 'effects of education and experience on nurses' value of

 

pressure ulcer' this explains that the participating nurses knew little about pressure ulcers and

 

why it is important to prevent them even though they have been educated prior to placement during registration (Samuriwo R., (2014).

 

The study shows that the operation of pressure ulcer prevention and management was effective due to management and political encumbrance. The nurses and HCA were encouraging in

 

themselves to see the process succeed but there was not enough time allotted and their lack education, therefore further study is required to prove that not enough of time does not mean not

 

enough staff (Newham R, et al, 2015). Pressure ulcer continue to be a problem in healthcare,

 

about 1.3 million to 3 million patients have pressure ulcer and it cost about $500 to $40000 to PRESSURE ULCERS treat one at a time. The occurrence of pressure ulcer differs depending on the facility, in the hospital occurrence is about

 

0.4 percent to 38.0 percent while 2.2 percent to 23.9 percent in the nursing homes and O

 

percent to 17 percent in home care setting (Lyder C. H, 2010).

 

This research started with various goals in view but fell short due to poor response;

 

firstly, the ward managers to be educated for the intervention did not respond to repeated requests by the researchers. Secondly, the operation ran out ohime as the financial commitment

 

was only for one year. In this study six staff nurses and six HCA that were care givers to the patients and two acute care facilities and two primary care facility were recruited for the purpose

 

and three of these facilities had large number of inpatient and one was median size and all near

 

each other for easy access between staff and patients (Newham R, et al, 2015).

 

The National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) whose purpose is to limit danger to patient

 

from pressure ulcer, in 2011 briefly listed the solution to this problem to be checking the skin of

 

patients, positioning at regular intervals including looking out for moisture-free area and checking nutritional levels of the patients (Benboe M, 2012).

 

Conceptual I Theoretical Framework

 

This research started at the beginning with the intention of having a study customized to

 

the UK and England on the prevention and management of pressure ulcers hence, the entire reference articles available before now were all from the USA. The researchers utilized the resources of healthcare staff, management and the patients in the local facilities and the methodology used was of the qualitative method (Newham R, et al, 2015). 4 PRESSURE ULCERS 5 Grounded theory talks of standard all-inclusive way of carrying out qualitative research

 

geared toward the development of a theory. Grounded theory extensive importance due to its; 1,

 

open systematic way of carrying out a qualitative research. 2, affords specific ways for taking

 

care of the phase of analyzing inquiries. 3, summarizes and brings together collected data and

 

analysis. 4, gives meaning to qualitative research as a scientific finding (Charmaz K, (2009).

 

The study developed a framework by the survey questions posed to participants and the

 

report of their responses verbatim. The survey questions elicited the truth of prior training of the nurses and the involvement of facility management especially due to governmental policies enforcement in terms of financial liability (Newham R, et al, 2015).

 

Despite limitations, the importance of pressure ulcer prevention and management cannot

 

be overemphasized, the cost and the adverse effects of pressure ulcers on the lives of those affected is great. Some of the complications are cellulitis, gas gangrene, blood poisoning, necrotizing farciitis. Others are physical disability (NHS inform, 2015). PRESSURE ULCERS 6 Reference

 

Charmaz, Kathy. "Grounded Theory." The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. 2003. SAGE Publications. 24 May. 2009.

 

Courtney H. Lyder, (2010), Pressure Ulcer Prevention and Management. JAMA

 

2003 ;289(2):223-226 (doi:10.1001/jama .289.2.223) http://jama.ama assn.org/cgi/content/full/289/2/223

 

Maureen Benbow, (2012). Management of pressure ulcers. http://www.nursinginpractice.com /article/management -pressure-ulcers

 

Newham, R., & Hudgell, L. (2015). Pressure-ulcer management and prevention in acute

 

and primary care. British Journal Of Nursing , 24S4-S 11 1p.

 

Ray, Samuriwo, (2014) Effects of education and experience on nurses' value of ulcer prevention.https ://www.researchgate .net/publication/ 47755947_Effects_ of_education_and_exper

 

ience_on_ nurses'_value_ of_ulcer_prevention

 


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