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Students will choose one mental


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Students will choose one mental health disorder and write a 5 page paper in proper APA format.  Students will recognize at least the following in their paper: How the disorder is diagnosed, likely population, gender, SES or if there are no differences found, symptoms, treatment, the most effective treatment methods currently being used, past treatment methods, how this disorder can affect family members.  Students can use interviews if they know of someone who has been diagnosed with this disorder or a family member as part of their paper. 

Running head: POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER The posttraumatic stress disorder, which is abbreviated as the PTSD, is mental health


problem that some persons do normally develop after just after experiencing or even witnessing


life-threatening event, for example, a combat, natural disaster, car accident, or even a sexual 1 POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER 2 assault. Having upsetting memories, feeling on the edge, or even having trouble while sleeping


after such kind of event always considered normal (Williams, Richardson & Galovski, 2013). At


first, it can be so hard to always do the normal daily doings, for example, going to work, going to


school, or even spending time with persons that an individual care about.


Nevertheless, most persons begin to feeling better subsequent to a few weeks or even


months. If the duration has been longer compared to a few months and an individual is still


experiencing the symptoms, then the person may possibly be having posttraumatic stress


disorder (Williams, Richardson & Galovski, 2013). For some persons, posttraumatic stress


disorder symptoms can sometimes start later on, or even they can come as well as go over the




The posttraumatic stress disorder can always happen to anybody. It isn?t a sign or


symptom of weakness. Several factors are in a position to increase the possibility that an


individual will have posttraumatic stress disorder, many of which aren?t under that individual's


control. For instance, having very intense or even a long-lasting traumatic event or even getting


injured for the period of the event can always make it even more likely that an individual will


develop posttraumatic stress disorder (Shiromani, Keane & LeDoux, 2014). Posttraumatic stress


disorder is always very common after given types of the trauma, for example, combat as well as


sexual assault.


Individual factors, for example, the previous traumatic exposure, the age, as well as the


gender, can always have impact on whether or not an individual will then develop posttraumatic


stress disorder. Whatever happens after traumatic event is also vital (Shiromani, Keane &


LeDoux, 2014). Stress can also make posttraumatic stress disorder to be more likely, while social


support, which can always make it to be less likely. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER 3 The major treatments for the persons with posttraumatic stress disorder are counseling


which is always known as the talk therapy or the psychotherapy, the medications, or even both.


However, there are various treatment options for the posttraumatic stress disorder, and the


patient response to the treatment do normally varies, some of the treatments do have more


benefit in general. The Cognitive-behavioral therapy, which is abbreviated as CBT, is one of the


types of counseling (Mahan & Ressler, 2012). With the Cognitive-behavioral therapy, the


therapist do helps service member who is dealing with the Cognitive-behavioral therapy to


understand as well as to change how the thoughts as well as beliefs concerning the trauma, and


also about the world, cause stress as well as to maintain the current symptoms.


Some of the effective treatments for the Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder


include; Prolonged-exposure therapy, in this type of treatment, the therapist always guides client


to recall the traumatic memories in a very controlled fashion so that the clients sooner or later


regain the mastery of their own thoughts as well as feelings around that incident. While exposing


the individuals to very events that lead to their trauma can seem so counterintuitive (Mehta et al.


2013). That is always done in very gradual, controlled as well as repeated manner, until the


individual is in a position to evaluate their own circumstances realistically as well as understand


that they can always safely return to their normal activities in their current lives that they have


been avoiding.


Another effective treatments for the Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder is the


Cognitive-processing therapy, which is a form of the cognitive behavioral therapy, or the CBT, it


was developed so as to treat the rape victims and then later it was applied to the posttraumatic


stress disorder. The treatment always includes exposure component, though it places a greater


emphasis on the cognitive strategies so as to aid persons so as to alter their erroneous thoughts POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER 4 that had emerged because of the occurrence of the event (Lanius et al. 2012). The practitioners


can sometimes work with the clients on the false beliefs, foe example, that the globe is no longer


a safe place, or that the individuals are incompetent for the reason that they have allowed terrible


event to occur to them.


Hence, the components of cognitive therapy include; to modify relationships between the


thoughts as well as feelings, to identify as well as challenge the inaccurate or the extreme


automatic negative thoughts and also to develop the alternative, the more logical or even helpful


thoughts (Lanius et al. 2012). The goal of cognitive therapy is to help the client to recognize as


well as to adjust trauma-related thoughts as well as beliefs and to help the clients to modify his or


her appraisals of self as well as the world.


Another effective treatments for the Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder is the


Stress-inoculation training, which is another form of the CBT, where the practitioners do teach or


educate the clients some techniques so as to manage as well as to reduce the anxiety, for


example, breathing, positive self-talk as well as muscle relaxation. Another effective treatment


for the Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder is the other forms of the cognitive therapy that


includes the cognitive restructuring as well as the cognitive therapy. Another effective treatments


for the Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder is the Eye-movement desensitization as well


as reprocessing, or the EMDR, that is whereby the therapist do guides the clients so as to make


the eye movements or even to follow the hand taps, for example, at the same time, the clients are


made to recount the traumatic events (Watts et al. 2013). To date, it is not very clear how the


EMDR do works, and because of that, it's somewhat still controversial.


The components of the Stress-inoculation training include; providing variety of the


coping skills that are vital in managing the anxiety, that includes the muscle relaxation, the POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER


breathing retraining, as well as the role playing and also the cognitive techniques, for example,


the guided self-talk. Another component of Stress-inoculation training is graduated in vivo


exposure (Watts et al. 2013). The aim or goal of Stress-inoculation is to decrease avoidance as


well as anxious that is responding to trauma-related memories, the thoughts as well as the




Another effective treatments for the Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder is the


medications, particularly the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The paroxetine, which is


also known as the Paxil as well as the sertaline which is also known as the Zoloft, was approved


by Food and Drug Administration to be used in posttraumatic stress disorder (Berntsen et al.


2012). Other forms of medications can be useful in the treatment of the posttraumatic stress


disorder as well, specifically when the individual has the additional disorders, for example, the


depression, the anxiety or even the psychosis, the guidelines does note.


The other possible ways of treating posttraumatic stress disorder is when it?s


accompanied by the other psychiatric as well as health conditions. For instance, an integrated


treatment which aims at alleviating the symptoms of both the posttraumatic stress disorder as


well as the chronic pain in the client. That kind of treatment always combines the aspects of the


cognitive processing therapy for the trauma as well as the cognitive behavioral therapy for the


chronic pain. Though the two conditions do interact in some psychological manner that does


makes them to be more severe as well as challenging to treat (Berntsen et al. 2012). The anxiety


sensitivity fear of experiencing an individual?s anxiety-related symptoms can raise odds that


certain posttraumatic stress disorder sufferers do have more problems compared to others.


The additional typed of counseling that are helpful in the treating of the posttraumatic


stress disorder include the group therapy by giving the individuals with posttraumatic stress 5 POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER 6 disorder to share their stories with the group members with the similar experience or even


feelings (Lanius et al. 2012). Another type of counseling s the family and group therapy whereby


the therapist do help the individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder to communicate, to


maintain good relationship as well as to cope with the tough emotions. Reference


Berntsen, D., Johannessen, K. B., Thomsen, Y. D., Bertelsen, M., Hoyle, R. H., & Rubin, D. C.


(2012). Peace and war trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms before, POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER 7 during, and after military deployment in Afghanistan. Psychological science, 23(12),




Lanius, R. A., Brand, B., Vermetten, E., Frewen, P. A., & Spiegel, D. (2012). The dissociative


subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder: Rationale, clinical and neurobiological evidence,


and implications. Depression and anxiety, 29(8), 701-708.


Mahan, A. L., & Ressler, K. J. (2012). Fear conditioning, synaptic plasticity and the amygdala:


implications for posttraumatic stress disorder. Trends in neurosciences, 35(1), 24-35.


Mehta, D., Klengel, T., Conneely, K. N., Smith, A. K., Altmann, A., Pace, T. W., ... & Bradley, B.


(2013). Childhood maltreatment is associated with distinct genomic and epigenetic


profiles in posttraumatic stress disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of


Sciences, 110(20), 8302-8307.


Shiromani, P., Keane, T. M., & LeDoux, J. E. (2014). Post-traumatic stress disorder. Humana.


Watts, B. V., Schnurr, P. P., Mayo, L., Young-Xu, Y., Weeks, W. B., & Friedman, M. J. (2013).


Meta-analysis of the efficacy of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder. The Journal


of clinical psychiatry, 74(6), 541-550.


Williams, A. M., Richardson, G., & Galovski, T. E. (2013). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.


Anxiety Disorders: A Guide for Integrating Psychopharmacology and Psychotherapy,




Rauch SA, Eftekhari A, Ruzek JI. Review of exposure therapy: A gold standard for PTSD


treatment. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2012;49(5):679?88. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER 8 Rauch SA, Defever E, Favorite T, Duroe A, Garrity C, Martis B, Liberzon I. Prolonged exposure


for PTSD in a Veterans Health Administration PTSD clinic. J Trauma Stress.


2009;22(1):60?64. [PMID:19145643] Schnurr PP, Friedman MJ, Foy DW, Shea MT, Hsieh FY, Lavori PW, Glynn SM, Wattenberg M,


Bernardy NC. Randomized trial of trauma-focused group therapy for posttraumatic stress


disorder: Results from a Department of Veterans Affairs cooperative study. Arch Gen


Psychiatry. 2003;60(5):481?89. [PMID:12742869]


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Hi, ireenefaana, can you please help me edit  this paper.

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