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Hopefully you can help me with this assignment. I have most of it done through the help of anothe

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Hopefully you can help me with this assignment. I have most of it done through the help of another tutor but they haven't been responding back and this assignment is now past due so I need to get it done asap. I know its really just the one section but if you see anything else that needs to be changed or corrected please let me know as well. Attached is the assignment and what I have done so far. The section I need help with in the paper is the Section 5 Criterion Deficiency and Contamination Issues.

The other tutor sent me this: "Central Tendency Error is the raters' inclination to abstain from making "outrageous" judgments of worker execution bringing about rating all representatives in the center part of a scale. This can happen either when a director is not happy with struggle and keeps away from cheap stamps to abstain from managing behavioral issues or when a supervisor purposefully compels all workers to the center of the scale."

I have no idea what that means. I asked for clarification and haven't gotten a response back. I don't know if that makes an sense to you or not.

Running head: PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT METHODS Critical Thinking Assignment #2


Performance Management Methods


Katherine A. Poelman


HRM400 ? Human Resources Development and Management


CSU Global


November 10, 2016 1 Performance Management Methods 2 Section 1- Trait-Based Performance Appraisals Methods


A trait appraisal instrument makes judgments about ?characteristics that tend to be


consistent and enduring? (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, & Cardy, 2012). Typically, this method is done


through rating scales. A rating scale allows the supervisor to decide the key regions the


examination will assess, for example, particular employment aptitudes, collaboration, relational


abilities, unwavering quality and adaptability. The company can customize the rating scale to


mirror the skills that are important to the organization as well as what is needed for the job. For


instance, the examination for a human asset specialist may add more weight to the rating for


relational abilities while a gathering laborer's audit may concentrate more on specialized skills


(Fletcher, C., & Perry, 2002).


Section 2- Behavioral-Based Performance Appraisal Methods


Behavioral appraisal methods ?ask managers to assess a worker?s behaviors? (GomezMejia, Balkin, & Cardy, 2012). A well know behavioral appraisal method that is used is the


Behaviorally Anchored Ratings Scale (BARS) bases evaluations on specific behaviors for each


individual. Instructors can use the BARS to determine how involved students are in team


projects to help keep students motivated to be involved and not ride along on someone else?s


work. By using BARS it allows one to ?measure how an individual?s behaviors in various


performance categories contributes to achieving the goals of the team or organization.? (Ohland


et al., 2012)


Section 3- Other Performance Appraisal


Outcome appraisal instruments looks as the results that workers put out. Most commonly


used outcome appraisal is management by objectives (MBO) and focuses on the naturally Performance Management Methods 3 occurring outcomes measures (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, & Cardy, 2012). MBO can be a great too


for managers to utilize as it can improve employee motivation and commitment. It can also help


managers better communicate with employees. If a manager uses MBO, they do so by setting


goals in which the employee can work towards for the next evaluation period. ("Management by


objectives (Drucker)", 2016). For example, in a call center, if a manager wanted to increase the


sales for a particular they could set goals for how many times an employee makes an offer for the




Section 4- Reliability of Appraisals


Rating scales make it easy to use and understand and simplifies communicating strengths


and weaknesses. It also focuses more on the individual rather than the performance of the


individual. Rating scales can be reliable but managers can run into the issue of the individual


being less likely to accept feedback based as most employees would prefer feedback based on


observations and performance. (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, & Cardy, 2012). Basing appraisals off of


personality traits alone doesn?t give an accurate reading of someone. BARS is also easy to use


but it?s also applied individually as it is based on the behavior of the individual. Its actionoriented and comes across as fair. As BARS is based of behaviors exhibited, it is best to keep


review of performance capabilities as general as possible so that it all relates to the job at hand


rather than a very job-specific task to ensure that it is reliable and continues to remain reliable


(Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, & Cardy, 2012). Management by objectives is reliable in that it keeps the


employees focused on what needs to be. It can result in employees neglecting other tasks though


if not well rounded. To make the management by objectives more reliable, managers can set not


just one goal for employees but multiple goals so that it keeps them focused and ensure they are


doing what needs to be done. Performance Management Methods 4 Section 5 Criterion Deficiency and Contamination Issues Section 6- Rater Errors


There are several types of rater errors that can occur in a performance appraisal due to


biases on the raters? side. The four main errors that can occur are: central tendency, leniency,


strictness, and force distribution. Central tendency error is the raters' tendency to rate most of all


employees as average. This can happen either when a manager refuses to rate an employee on a


scale as either excellent or poor and chooses to only rate them in the middle of the scale (GomezMejia, Balkin, & Cardy, 2012). This can lead to issues as an employee who isn?t doing well


could possibly be rated above what they really are or under rating someone who has done


exceptionally well. This makes the rating inaccurate when this happens. Leniency error can occur


when a manager rates employees on the higher end of the scale only (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, &


Cardy, 2012). If a manager is only rating an employee on the high side of a scale it can lead to


complacency. It can also mean that if they employee really does need to improve more then they


will not realize it as the employee sees a high rating and feels that there is no need to further




Strictness error is where the manager is too strict in their evaluation of their employees


(Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, & Cardy, 2012) and is the opposite extreme of the leniency error. Being


overly strict with employees can lead to employees being less motivated and a downward trend


in their performance. If a manager is too strict with their employees, the employees with start to


feel that nothing is good enough for that manager. When an employee starts to feel this way, they


become frustrated and in some cases, will give up in trying to improve. Force distribution error is


where employees are forced into categories. For example, a manager would rank the employees Performance Management Methods 5 between three categories: top, average and poor. The ?top? employees are given higher raises or


other options with in the company. ?Average? employees are given smaller raises and less


desirable options and ?poor? employees do not get any raise or offered anything else. This can be


seen as unfair and create a lot of competition. Performance Management Methods 6


Section 7? References Fletcher, C., & Perry, E. L. (2002). Performance appraisal and feedback: A consideration of


national culture and a review of contemporary research and future trends.


Gomez-Mejia, L., Balkin, D., & Cardy, R. (2012). Managing human resources (7th ed.). Boston:




Management by objectives (Drucker). (2016). Communication Theory. Retrieved 11 November


2016, from


Ohland, M. W., Loughry, M. L., Woehr, D. J., Bullard, L. G., Felder, R. M., Finelli, C. J., & ...


Schmucker, D. G. (2012). The Comprehensive Assessment of Team Member


Effectiveness: Development of a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale for Self- and Peer


Evaluation. Academy Of Management Learning & Education, 11(4), 609-630.




What Is BARS (Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales). (2016).


Retrieved 10 November 2016, from


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