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I have to do a research methodology report on a literature review I wrote earlier in this class a


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I have to do a research methodology report on a literature review I wrote earlier in this class and I need help. I have attached my Module 5 paper for whomever accepts the assignment for your review. It is due Sunday night July 31st 2016. If there is anything you need me to update, let me know. PLEASE HELP! Thanks

Research Methodology Assignment

For the research question and hypotheses you developed in your Module 5 Literature Review assignment, write a report outlining the type data you would collect, how you would collect it,and how you would analyze it. Your report must contain the following sections: Study Design,Population and Sample, Variables and Measures, Data Collection Methods, Data Analysis Methods, and References. See Report 3 starting on page 374 of the Sekaran and Bougie text foran example, but remember that your report will differ from this example because you are not actually completing the analysis. You will turn in this assignment in Module 9.

The primary purpose of this assignment is to give you experience in determining appropriateresearch methods to be used with the research question and hypotheses you have posed andwith the type data you would need to collect to answer your question. Your report mustcontain the sections indicated in the previous paragraph, and APA formatting standards mustbe followed throughout. The paper does not have to be lengthy; perhaps 750 to 1500 words.

You may find it helpful to outline your paper before you begin to write it. An outline helps yousee the logical connections (or lack thereof) among the parts of the paper. The following givesmore information on what should be in each of the sections mentioned above. A good point tokeep in mind is that your methodology section should be in enough detail that if you gavesomeone else your methodology section and your data, they could do the analysis.

? Study Design ? This is a brief overview section. You should repeat the research questionand hypotheses from your literature review assignment here, then briefly tell what typeof study you would do, what type of data you would collect, and how you would collectand analyze the data. Most of these points are covered in more detail in later sections.

? Population and Sample ? This is a short section describing the population for your report, your sample, and how your sample will be selected.

? Variables and Measures ? Describe the variables in your study. Indicate whether they are independent, dependent, moderating, or intervening. Describe the relationshipamong the variables. Tell how they will be measured.

? Data Collection Methods ? Tell what kind of data you need to collect and how, where,and when you will collect the data. If you plan to use a survey or questionnaire, includea copy of that instrument in an appendix to your report. Also include a copy of yourcover letter for your survey. If you plan to interview, tell if it would be structured orunstructured and why. If it is a structured interview, include the questions you wouldask in an appendix to the report.

? Data Analysis Methods ? Describe the techniques you will use to analyze the data.Indicate why you selected those methods and why they are appropriate for your study.

? References - Your report must contain a reference section that includes all sources in your paper. References must be in APA format.


Running head: OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONS 1 Understanding the Nature of the Open-Market Operations

 

John Dizzle

 

Embry Riddle Aeronautical University RSCH 202 OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONS 2 Understanding the Nature of the Open-Market Operations

 

Introduction to the War Driven Open Market Operations

 

The purpose of this paper is to understand the nature of the open-market and its

 

operations. Also, it will help the reader understand how affects us every day. The term openmarket operations is a business term simply meaning that it is a form of activity in which the

 

Federal Reserve uses as a mechanism to buy or sell government bonds on the open market. The

 

problem here is resource management. Using fiat currencies and a Federal Reserve Banking

 

system to have access to resources needs to adjust. If we do not fix the problem, we will

 

eventually reach a point where the open market operations that are only sustainable through a

 

banking cartel will collapse. It is important to fix this problem because most economies are war

 

driven and when economies start to tank, riots and war tears countries apart to include their

 

neighboring country.

 

Jacques Pauwels, a historian and political scientist wrote a piece for the Global Research

 

Organization which examines global economies and their state of operation. He writes, ?This

 

system ? America?s brand of capitalism ? functions first and foremost to make extremely rich

 

Americans like the Bush ?money dynasty? even richer. Without warm or cold wars, however,

 

this system can no longer produce the expected result in the form of the ever-higher profits the

 

moneyed and powerful of America consider as their birthright? [Pau16]. What he is getting at is

 

that there are a few in charge guiding our economy and open market operations to countries that

 

seem to have been targeted for war with the promise of economic return. OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONS 3

 

Literature Review How the Market and Commerce Works

 

One way to better understand the open market operation in America to include Europe

 

would be to go back to the 2008/2009 major recession we endured. Once this happened,

 

monetary policies had to be developed and enacted immediately in order to control the stability

 

of the economy and the value of the currency. Dr. Puriya Abbassi published a paper describing

 

the financial crisis and monetary policies and how they are coherent with one another. ?The

 

financial crisis has deeply affected money markets and thus, potentially, the proper functioning

 

of the interest rate channel of monetary policy transmission. Therefore, we analyze the

 

effectiveness of monetary policy in steering euro area money market rates by looking at (i) the

 

predictability of money market rates on the basis of monetary policy expectations and (ii) the

 

impact of extraordinary central bank measures on money market rates?[Abb12]. Now we

 

understand that money and policy work hand in hand. Policy directs money while economies

 

adjust to them no matter the political atmosphere.

 

Tariffs and taxes are another major influential element of open market operations. In

 

order for a country to make money on imported and exported goods, they levy a tax or tariff on

 

it. The problem is, it is not an effective system. Dr. Sandra Sequeira published a paper called

 

?Tariffs and corruption: evidence from a tariff liberalization program? to the London School of

 

Economics and Political Science. In the paper she writes, ?Tarif evasion often takes place

 

through the misrepresentation of import prices, the underreporting of quantities or through the

 

misclassification of imported products into lower tarif categories? [Seq13]. So it this easy that

 

you can just skew a few numbers for the accountability process which changes the tax

 

percentage and sneak the goods right into the country for an increase in profits. OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONS 4

 

Interest Rates The next thing to understand is the interest rate process. As a component of its obligation

 

regarding the money related approach, the Reserve Bank Board sets an objective for the interest

 

rate. This is the rate at which banks obtain from and loan to each other on an overnight,

 

unsecured premise. The interest is dictated by the rate and supply of trade settlements and adjusts

 

that business banks hold at the Reserve Bank. Through its open market operations, the Reserve

 

Bank changes the volume of these parities in order to keep the money rate as close as could be

 

expected under the circumstances to its objective which is the most profitable but sustainable in

 

the given market. David Director Friedman from the Economist goes into detail about the

 

principle. ?The principle is simple: because the Fed controls the supply of reserves, it can also

 

control their price. But this mechanism is not available any more. That is because since 2008,

 

under its policy known as quantitative easing, the Fed has bought $3.8 trillion worth of

 

Treasuries and other securities in attempt to stimulate the economy. In doing so, it created huge

 

pools of new money, so that today banks are awash with reserves. To push up interest rates, the

 

Fed would need to unwind all these purchases?something it does not want to do until rates are

 

higher?[DD15]. This makes it clear that the physical money supply is completely monitored,

 

manipulated, and managed for profit.

 

Ben Bernanke, an American economist at the Brookings Institution and former Chairman

 

of the Federal Reserve serving two consecutive terms comes right out says what the Fed does in

 

regards to interest rates. He wrote in his own personal blog for the Brookings Institution about

 

the interest rates being low. He writes, ?The Fed does, of course, set the benchmark nominal

 

short-term interest rate. The Fed?s policies are also the primary determinant of inflation and

 

inflation expectations over the longer term, and inflation trends affect interest rates, as the figure OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONS 5 above shows. But what matters most for the economy is the real, or inflation-adjusted, interest

 

rate (the market, or nominal, interest rate minus the inflation rate). The real interest rate is most

 

relevant for capital investment decisions, for example?[Ber15]. As the former Chairman of the

 

Fed, it is clear he knows what he is talking about. He lays it out for everyone to understand, it?s

 

all rigged, but rigged in a way that only certain people can benefit from the open market

 

operations, specifically those with big capital.

 

Tangible Currency and Manipulation

 

So now we understand that the tangible, being the money supply which is governed by

 

interest rates, and the intangibles, being the policies, rules, regulations, and ACT?s enacted by the

 

political climate, which makes it clear that the entire enterprise is being manipulated and

 

controlled. So when we call this financial system an ?open-market operation?, it really means

 

open market to the banking cartels and not to the people. Open-market operations may seem like

 

a good idea and in theory, seem like there is open free markets for the citizens to flourish, but in

 

reality, open-market operations means open season money manipulation of a given economy by

 

dealing government bonds. To further emphasize proof of manipulation of the economy, the

 

Journal of Banking & Finance has a scholarly article about a process known as ?maintenance

 

periods?. It is simply meaning that these are key areas where it is time to act. Dennis Farley, the

 

author of the article states, ?From the wide variety of factors influencing OMOs, we choose

 

several that seem important in determining the size of temporary operations. They include

 

?seasonal? effects from particular days of the maintenance period and indicators of pressure

 

arising from reserve demand. Our findings indicate that the Desk has tailored its operations to

 

address the changed pattern of demand that has been associated with lower reserve

 

requirements?[Far05]. This says to me that the open market operations game is so closely OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONS 6 monitored that they even have methods to steer any economy into any direction the fed wants. It

 

clearly seems that the open market operation of selling bonds is down to a mathematical science

 

of sorts.

 

Another example of the Fed being a manipulator addressed by Steve Forbes. Steve

 

Forbes is chairman and editor in chief of Forbes Media. He says in his piece that he wrote for

 

The Hill, ?Look at what the Fed has done since 2009. Zero interest rates, quantitative easing and

 

the hyper-regulation of banks have woefully deformed our credit markets. The result? Artificially

 

directing credit to bonds at the expense of loans to small and new businesses and households. As

 

noted economist David Malpass points out, ?53% of total credit is in the form of bonds, up from

 

39% ten years ago. [This is] a dramatic swing in the allocation of credit in the economy toward

 

big, well-established entities and away from growth.?[For16]. This analysis of understanding all

 

the mechanisms and tools in place for the Fed to use to deal with a struggling economy is very

 

clear that this is manipulated at the highest levels. As American citizens who manage their

 

money, if we begin to have financial problems, we cannot just manipulate our interest rates and

 

payment policies from our lenders like the Fed does.

 

Research Question

 

Is the current method of the open market operation system necessary for resource

 

management of the earth and the people on it?

 

Theoretical Framework

 

The Literature Review portion emphasizes various points of views presenting in a manner

 

in which the system is understood, how it operates, and knowing the nature of the decision

 

making processes. One needs to be understood is that when open market operations are

 

determining interest rates, bonds, and money supply, you can easily determine that innovation is OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONS 7 stifled and our technological progress is limited to flux of the money game. These are

 

unnecessary oscillations in the economic continuum. If man is to progress its kind by eliminating

 

poverty and scarcity, the open market operation system must undergo a change in the mechanism

 

process regarding the access to resources to everyone. There is no final means to the system,

 

meaning that it is not designed to phase out the problems in our world and wing ourselves off of

 

the oil dependency that this open market operation depends on. The current open market

 

operation does not have innovation inherent in it to make resources more available. Hypothesis (Null & Alternative)

 

The null hypothesis: A successful system depends on how they deal with the waste from

 

an economics standpoint in the open market operation continuum.

 

The Alternative Hypothesis: Open-Market Operations is not innovative and must adjust

 

its core process that can allow innovation and creativity to phase out the unnecessary oscillations

 

in the operating continuum thus phasing out the use of fiat currency. References OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONS 8 Abbassi, P. (2012). The effectiveness of monetary policy in steering money market rates during

 

the financial crisis. Econpapers, 945-954.

 

Bernanke, B. (2015, March 30). Why Are Interest Rates So Low? Retrieved from Brookings

 

Instituion: http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/ben-bernanke/posts/2015/03/30-why-interestrates-so-low

 

Farley, D. (2005). Declining required reserves, funds rate volatility, and open market operations.

 

Journal of Banking & Finance, 1131?1152.

 

Forbes, S. (2016, June 6). Get Fed Out of Interest Rates. Retrieved from The Hill:

 

http://thehill.com/opinion/op-ed/284174-get-fed-out-of-interest-rates

 

Friedman, D. D. (2015, December 15). How the Fed will raise interest rates. Retrieved from The

 

Economist: http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2015/12/economistexplains-10

 

Pauwels, J. (2016, March 16). Why America Needs War. Retrieved from Global Research:

 

http://www.globalresearch.ca/why-america-needs-war/5328631

 

Sequeira, S. (2013, Novemeber 1). Tariffs and Corruption: Evidence From a Tariff

 

Liberalization Program. Retrieved from The London School of Economics and Political

 

Science: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/54328/1/__libfile_repository_Content_Sequeira%2C

 

%20S_Tariffs%20corruption%20evidence_Sequeira_Tariffs%20corruption

 

%20evidence_2013.pdf OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONS 9

 


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