I have to do a research methodology report on a literature review I wrote earlier in this class and I need help. I have attached my Module 5 paper for whomever accepts the assignment for your review. It is due Sunday night July 31st 2016. If there is anything you need me to update, let me know. PLEASE HELP! Thanks
Research Methodology Assignment
For the research question and hypotheses you developed in your Module 5 Literature Review assignment, write a report outlining the type data you would collect, how you would collect it,and how you would analyze it. Your report must contain the following sections: Study Design,Population and Sample, Variables and Measures, Data Collection Methods, Data Analysis Methods, and References. See Report 3 starting on page 374 of the Sekaran and Bougie text foran example, but remember that your report will differ from this example because you are not actually completing the analysis. You will turn in this assignment in Module 9.
The primary purpose of this assignment is to give you experience in determining appropriateresearch methods to be used with the research question and hypotheses you have posed andwith the type data you would need to collect to answer your question. Your report mustcontain the sections indicated in the previous paragraph, and APA formatting standards mustbe followed throughout. The paper does not have to be lengthy; perhaps 750 to 1500 words.
You may find it helpful to outline your paper before you begin to write it. An outline helps yousee the logical connections (or lack thereof) among the parts of the paper. The following givesmore information on what should be in each of the sections mentioned above. A good point tokeep in mind is that your methodology section should be in enough detail that if you gavesomeone else your methodology section and your data, they could do the analysis.
? Study Design ? This is a brief overview section. You should repeat the research questionand hypotheses from your literature review assignment here, then briefly tell what typeof study you would do, what type of data you would collect, and how you would collectand analyze the data. Most of these points are covered in more detail in later sections.
? Population and Sample ? This is a short section describing the population for your report, your sample, and how your sample will be selected.
? Variables and Measures ? Describe the variables in your study. Indicate whether they are independent, dependent, moderating, or intervening. Describe the relationshipamong the variables. Tell how they will be measured.
? Data Collection Methods ? Tell what kind of data you need to collect and how, where,and when you will collect the data. If you plan to use a survey or questionnaire, includea copy of that instrument in an appendix to your report. Also include a copy of yourcover letter for your survey. If you plan to interview, tell if it would be structured orunstructured and why. If it is a structured interview, include the questions you wouldask in an appendix to the report.
? Data Analysis Methods ? Describe the techniques you will use to analyze the data.Indicate why you selected those methods and why they are appropriate for your study.
? References - Your report must contain a reference section that includes all sources in your paper. References must be in APA format.
Running head: OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONS 1 Understanding the Nature of the Open-Market Operations
Embry Riddle Aeronautical University RSCH 202 OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONS 2 Understanding the Nature of the Open-Market Operations
Introduction to the War Driven Open Market Operations
The purpose of this paper is to understand the nature of the open-market and its
operations. Also, it will help the reader understand how affects us every day. The term openmarket operations is a business term simply meaning that it is a form of activity in which the
Federal Reserve uses as a mechanism to buy or sell government bonds on the open market. The
problem here is resource management. Using fiat currencies and a Federal Reserve Banking
system to have access to resources needs to adjust. If we do not fix the problem, we will
eventually reach a point where the open market operations that are only sustainable through a
banking cartel will collapse. It is important to fix this problem because most economies are war
driven and when economies start to tank, riots and war tears countries apart to include their
Jacques Pauwels, a historian and political scientist wrote a piece for the Global Research
Organization which examines global economies and their state of operation. He writes, ?This
system ? America?s brand of capitalism ? functions first and foremost to make extremely rich
Americans like the Bush ?money dynasty? even richer. Without warm or cold wars, however,
this system can no longer produce the expected result in the form of the ever-higher profits the
moneyed and powerful of America consider as their birthright? [Pau16]. What he is getting at is
that there are a few in charge guiding our economy and open market operations to countries that
seem to have been targeted for war with the promise of economic return. OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONS 3
Literature Review How the Market and Commerce Works
One way to better understand the open market operation in America to include Europe
would be to go back to the 2008/2009 major recession we endured. Once this happened,
monetary policies had to be developed and enacted immediately in order to control the stability
of the economy and the value of the currency. Dr. Puriya Abbassi published a paper describing
the financial crisis and monetary policies and how they are coherent with one another. ?The
financial crisis has deeply affected money markets and thus, potentially, the proper functioning
of the interest rate channel of monetary policy transmission. Therefore, we analyze the
effectiveness of monetary policy in steering euro area money market rates by looking at (i) the
predictability of money market rates on the basis of monetary policy expectations and (ii) the
impact of extraordinary central bank measures on money market rates?[Abb12]. Now we
understand that money and policy work hand in hand. Policy directs money while economies
adjust to them no matter the political atmosphere.
Tariffs and taxes are another major influential element of open market operations. In
order for a country to make money on imported and exported goods, they levy a tax or tariff on
it. The problem is, it is not an effective system. Dr. Sandra Sequeira published a paper called
?Tariffs and corruption: evidence from a tariff liberalization program? to the London School of
Economics and Political Science. In the paper she writes, ?Tarif evasion often takes place
through the misrepresentation of import prices, the underreporting of quantities or through the
misclassification of imported products into lower tarif categories? [Seq13]. So it this easy that
you can just skew a few numbers for the accountability process which changes the tax
percentage and sneak the goods right into the country for an increase in profits. OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONS 4
Interest Rates The next thing to understand is the interest rate process. As a component of its obligation
regarding the money related approach, the Reserve Bank Board sets an objective for the interest
rate. This is the rate at which banks obtain from and loan to each other on an overnight,
unsecured premise. The interest is dictated by the rate and supply of trade settlements and adjusts
that business banks hold at the Reserve Bank. Through its open market operations, the Reserve
Bank changes the volume of these parities in order to keep the money rate as close as could be
expected under the circumstances to its objective which is the most profitable but sustainable in
the given market. David Director Friedman from the Economist goes into detail about the
principle. ?The principle is simple: because the Fed controls the supply of reserves, it can also
control their price. But this mechanism is not available any more. That is because since 2008,
under its policy known as quantitative easing, the Fed has bought $3.8 trillion worth of
Treasuries and other securities in attempt to stimulate the economy. In doing so, it created huge
pools of new money, so that today banks are awash with reserves. To push up interest rates, the
Fed would need to unwind all these purchases?something it does not want to do until rates are
higher?[DD15]. This makes it clear that the physical money supply is completely monitored,
manipulated, and managed for profit.
Ben Bernanke, an American economist at the Brookings Institution and former Chairman
of the Federal Reserve serving two consecutive terms comes right out says what the Fed does in
regards to interest rates. He wrote in his own personal blog for the Brookings Institution about
the interest rates being low. He writes, ?The Fed does, of course, set the benchmark nominal
short-term interest rate. The Fed?s policies are also the primary determinant of inflation and
inflation expectations over the longer term, and inflation trends affect interest rates, as the figure OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONS 5 above shows. But what matters most for the economy is the real, or inflation-adjusted, interest
rate (the market, or nominal, interest rate minus the inflation rate). The real interest rate is most
relevant for capital investment decisions, for example?[Ber15]. As the former Chairman of the
Fed, it is clear he knows what he is talking about. He lays it out for everyone to understand, it?s
all rigged, but rigged in a way that only certain people can benefit from the open market
operations, specifically those with big capital.
Tangible Currency and Manipulation
So now we understand that the tangible, being the money supply which is governed by
interest rates, and the intangibles, being the policies, rules, regulations, and ACT?s enacted by the
political climate, which makes it clear that the entire enterprise is being manipulated and
controlled. So when we call this financial system an ?open-market operation?, it really means
open market to the banking cartels and not to the people. Open-market operations may seem like
a good idea and in theory, seem like there is open free markets for the citizens to flourish, but in
reality, open-market operations means open season money manipulation of a given economy by
dealing government bonds. To further emphasize proof of manipulation of the economy, the
Journal of Banking & Finance has a scholarly article about a process known as ?maintenance
periods?. It is simply meaning that these are key areas where it is time to act. Dennis Farley, the
author of the article states, ?From the wide variety of factors influencing OMOs, we choose
several that seem important in determining the size of temporary operations. They include
?seasonal? effects from particular days of the maintenance period and indicators of pressure
arising from reserve demand. Our findings indicate that the Desk has tailored its operations to
address the changed pattern of demand that has been associated with lower reserve
requirements?[Far05]. This says to me that the open market operations game is so closely OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONS 6 monitored that they even have methods to steer any economy into any direction the fed wants. It
clearly seems that the open market operation of selling bonds is down to a mathematical science
Another example of the Fed being a manipulator addressed by Steve Forbes. Steve
Forbes is chairman and editor in chief of Forbes Media. He says in his piece that he wrote for
The Hill, ?Look at what the Fed has done since 2009. Zero interest rates, quantitative easing and
the hyper-regulation of banks have woefully deformed our credit markets. The result? Artificially
directing credit to bonds at the expense of loans to small and new businesses and households. As
noted economist David Malpass points out, ?53% of total credit is in the form of bonds, up from
39% ten years ago. [This is] a dramatic swing in the allocation of credit in the economy toward
big, well-established entities and away from growth.?[For16]. This analysis of understanding all
the mechanisms and tools in place for the Fed to use to deal with a struggling economy is very
clear that this is manipulated at the highest levels. As American citizens who manage their
money, if we begin to have financial problems, we cannot just manipulate our interest rates and
payment policies from our lenders like the Fed does.
Is the current method of the open market operation system necessary for resource
management of the earth and the people on it?
The Literature Review portion emphasizes various points of views presenting in a manner
in which the system is understood, how it operates, and knowing the nature of the decision
making processes. One needs to be understood is that when open market operations are
determining interest rates, bonds, and money supply, you can easily determine that innovation is OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONS 7 stifled and our technological progress is limited to flux of the money game. These are
unnecessary oscillations in the economic continuum. If man is to progress its kind by eliminating
poverty and scarcity, the open market operation system must undergo a change in the mechanism
process regarding the access to resources to everyone. There is no final means to the system,
meaning that it is not designed to phase out the problems in our world and wing ourselves off of
the oil dependency that this open market operation depends on. The current open market
operation does not have innovation inherent in it to make resources more available. Hypothesis (Null & Alternative)
The null hypothesis: A successful system depends on how they deal with the waste from
an economics standpoint in the open market operation continuum.
The Alternative Hypothesis: Open-Market Operations is not innovative and must adjust
its core process that can allow innovation and creativity to phase out the unnecessary oscillations
in the operating continuum thus phasing out the use of fiat currency. References OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONS 8 Abbassi, P. (2012). The effectiveness of monetary policy in steering money market rates during
the financial crisis. Econpapers, 945-954.
Bernanke, B. (2015, March 30). Why Are Interest Rates So Low? Retrieved from Brookings
Farley, D. (2005). Declining required reserves, funds rate volatility, and open market operations.
Journal of Banking & Finance, 1131?1152.
Forbes, S. (2016, June 6). Get Fed Out of Interest Rates. Retrieved from The Hill:
Friedman, D. D. (2015, December 15). How the Fed will raise interest rates. Retrieved from The
Pauwels, J. (2016, March 16). Why America Needs War. Retrieved from Global Research:
Sequeira, S. (2013, Novemeber 1). Tariffs and Corruption: Evidence From a Tariff
Liberalization Program. Retrieved from The London School of Economics and Political
%20evidence_2013.pdf OPEN-MARKET OPERATIONS 9
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