I have team a paper to to write i have 750 words its a A 15-Step Model for Writing a Research Proposal? in this week?s Electronic Reserve Readings. Remember that a Research Proposal describes what you plan to do -- it should be written in future tense and describe the hypothetical study that your team is proposing to implement.The attached paper is what the research is on
of the 15 steps i need to do 7,8,9 Step 7. Outline the research method.
Step 8. Select setting, participants, sampling method, inclusion/exclusion criteria and method of recruitment.
Step 9. Describe data collection instruments.
I would need no later than late tomorrow night?
What do you think?
Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW 1 Literature Review
Staci Lowe LITERATURE REVIEW 2
Literature Review I. Introduction
Our team will investigate what are the effects on children being born and exposed to alcohol and other drugs. The problem area is the effects on children born into alcoholic homes,
and it is important to conduct this study for many reasons such as to understand what children go
through when born into this alcoholic home from physical, biological, psychological and
sociological aspects. Children exposed to alcohol and other drugs ultimately have two types
prenatal and interpersonal. Both forms of exposure can have major effects on children where the
prenatal exposure can affect a child for the rest of their life. Where there is much concern in the
passage of drugs into the human placenta and to the mother's milk and the use of tobacco,
alcohol, and any other drugs can affect the fetus in all different ways even if the mother quits
using. Interpersonal exposure effects are anywhere from social and psychological well into
adulthood. All can vary from the age of exposure, the progression of use, family dynamics and
external environments events (Fisher & Harrison, 2013). It's important to learn as much as we
can about the effects alcohol and other drugs have on children so we can create awareness to our
clients and the public. A literature review is a process of locating information regarding our
research question such as summaries, books, and journals to provide literature support to our
review for our topic (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). We hope to discover literature that supports and
gives more understanding to the research question.
II. Synthesis of Information
a. The US federal government is trying to make an approach to a 2003 law in which states must report and protect all babies that are born due to drugs intake of their mothers. Last
year they were making reports on opioid abstinence syndrome. "The Keeping Children and LITERATURE REVIEW 3 Families Safe Act has ignored by the hospitals, and states child protection agencies (Dyer, O.,
2016)". There were reports done over one hundred ten children have died and "in 2003 four
thousand four hundred ninety-one babies are born with the syndrome diagnosed (Dyer, O.,
2016)". Overall they are nine states that are complying with the law and keeping the babies safe.
Any reports not done are either that mothers have gone to prison or they have not reported to
hospitals and child protection agencies. Another thing not being said are also due because moms
are getting treatment and they are not reporting it either. In 2013 there was more death of babies
being a report and affecting the law to protect these children from further exposure and not
getting the treatment upon arrival of their births.
b. In considering the information about the effects on children being born and exposed to alcohol and other drugs whether it's prenatal or interpersonal, there is a significant
amount of information to interpret and still study to put into our literature review. With only nine
states complying with the laws of reporting and protecting all babies going to be born addicted to
drugs we need to inform the public of the consequences. Interpersonal exposure also affects
between 11 and 17.5 million children in the United States that are under the age of 18 living a
family of alcoholism (Fisher & Harrison, 2013, p 8). On a global perspective, it's estimated that
91 million family members are affected in our world, and substance misuse has such a negative
impact. Where it changes the family dynamics, family rules, rituals, routines, communication,
social, financial, roles and their homeostasis (Fisher & Harrison, 2013, p 10). Documented in
many findings of the parental substance abuse can create alcohol problems in children for
instance children of alcoholics (COAs) are at high risk to develop alcoholism themselves
(Johnson & Left, 1999). When these kids grow up in these homes where substances used, they
are at a significant risk for physical, sexual, psychological, and psychosocial developmental LITERATURE REVIEW 4 problems. Even with the worldwide recognition of these risk, there are limited resources out
there to help these children and schools are trying to implement a curriculum of
psychoeducational groups to school children (Dore, Nelson-Zlupko & Kaufman, 1999). Children
from these alcoholic families may, in fact, well documented but the effects in psychosocial
development in latency-age groups of children is still unexplored (Dore, Kauffman, NelsonZlupko & Granfort, 1996).
1. In a research conducted in January 2002 to March 2003, The National Survey of Family Growth, based their research on women drinking and if they were pregnant or not. "In a
month frame there were two million U.S. women are at high risk of an AEP (Cannon, M. J., Guo,
J., Denny, C. H., Green, P. P., Miracle, H., Sniezek, J., E., and Floyed R. L., 2015)". More than
six hundred thousand women were binge drinking and with binge drinking the person gets
intoxicated with the consumption of alcohol in a short time span of drinking. An example of a
person who can get drunk faster if the individual is sipping on a straw than without a straw.
Another case is it depends on the person and how well they can hold their liquor and then some
people can get intoxicated with only three beers or drinks when another person can hold their
liquor of at least six drinks throughout the day or night. Other individuals can go on drinking the
whole day and not get affected by the next day or some people know when they have had enough
to drink. "Of those two million women with AEP risk, they are endangering their unborn babies
to be born with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (Cannon, M. J., Guo, J., Denny, C. H., Green, P.
P., Miracle, H., Sniezek, J., E., and Floyed R. L., 2015)". Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders have
caused by early drinking during the peaks of first stages of pregnancy. And other pregnant
women will continue to drink throughout their whole pregnancy. FASDs is one of the leading
cause for the unborn babies causing them to have developmental disabilities. The FASDs varies LITERATURE REVIEW 5 from child to child and depending on the mother's consumption of alcohol and if she stopped as
soon as possible. In review, the harm to the unborn baby depends on the severe alcohol intake
the mother consumes while conceiving or through her pregnancy stages. "Every year in the
United States there are approximately two thousand to eight thousand children born with fetal
alcohol syndrome (Cannon, M. J., Guo, J., Denny, C. H., Green, P. P., Miracle, H., Sniezek, J.,
E., and Floyed R. L., 2015)".
2. ?The Center for Disease Control and Prevention showed that approximately twelve percent of pregnant women used alcohol throughout their pregnancy (Frost, E., Gist, R.,
and Adriano, E., 2011)". Two percent of women were binge drinking, and they have supportive
care offered to women who are drinking during their pregnancy. Also, their support is
intravenous hydration, vitamin supplementation, and magnesium repletion and they provide
therapy in which case the obstetrician, neonatologist, and anesthesiologist help their patients.
They use benzodiazepine, midazolam or lorazepam and this is what they prefer to use when
needed to help a patient. Alcohol consumption affects the women but also the fetal during the
pregnancy and when the baby is born. "Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is caused by prenatal
alcohol exposure (Frost, E., Gist, R., and Adriano, E., 2011)". Babies or children born to
mothers that consume alcohol causes craniofacial, limb, and cardiovascular defects to the babies
born to alcoholic mothers. These are the other systems as well as growth deficiency and
developmental delays for the children, and fetal alcohol is a leading cause of mental retardation
in our children. There are no cures for the children, but it all depends on the severity of their
FASDs, and there are some symptoms that they can help or assist a child, but it all depends on
the severity damage each child has upon their arrival. To avoid babies being born with FASDs
mothers should not drink alcohol before conceiving or getting help once they learn they are LITERATURE REVIEW 6 pregnant and make any changes for the safety of children being born with FASDs they should
have more information available, programs, educational classes or seminars.
3. It has stated that the United States underage drinking remains a problem and there is a health risk as well and with many ads on television for advertising alcohol, it becomes a
pattern for underage drinking. "A survey done were among two thousand five hundred forty-one
youth?s ages from fifteen to twenty years old (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012)".
Questions that were composed were their age, gender, race and if friends drank and their
families. Across the country, there had been a sampling of about one thousand ages thirteen to
twenty years olds have to consume alcohol in the past month. Advertisements have observed
throughout the television commercials and alcohol, and cigarettes smoking are seen on high
4. There are many ads shows on television, billboards, and signs. Where children as young as eleven years old see these ads on a regular basis and African American and Hispanic
children are mostly likely to be exposed to underage drinking. "An experience has been
conducted in the Los Angeles area and has shown that four hundred ninety children from the
ages of eleven to fourteen years olds were among those exposed to these ads (Wallace, K.
2016)". In the year of 2015, there had been a decrease in alcohol consumption in the eighth,
tenth, and twelve grades have gone less since the studies. Also, in families depending on how
much they consume and have alcoholic beverages at home it is easy to access when the parents
are away especially if the alcohol is not locked away and keep from the children or young
5. Through our investigation into the need for further studies, we have concluded that more studies need to be accomplished, so that helps develop ways to help women stop LITERATURE REVIEW 7 drinking immediately upon learning of their pregnancy. We have discussed some of the ways that
are currently being tested, but there are still too many children born with these problems. We feel
that more severe consequence and more attention to the problem may help.
Advertising was discussed as a cause of the problem of underage drinking, and it may be
just as effective in stopping the use of dangerous substances during pregnancy. Perhaps the ads
that show the babies and what the effects are can then show how even as adults they are still
Studying the effects are not enough we need to develop long-term treatment option and
consider the ways that have been tried and add to them or start over with new and useful
Our learning team has, as part of the literacy review, learned that there is an ongoing problem in the United States regarding the use of alcohol and other drugs by pregnant women.
The current research shows that babies born to mothers who consume alcohol and drugs during
the pregnancy are more likely to suffer birth defects. These birth defects can range from mild to
severe and possibly even eventually death. Children born to addicted mothers suffer physically,
biologically, psychologically and sociologically.
Our team has studied the many different issues that the children born into alcoholic homes
must cope. Most of the problems they suffer are lifelong problems. While we have learned the
problems that result from drinking and using drugs while pregnant, we have not found effective
ways to treat these children once they are born. There should be more research done on the
means to treat the infants at birth and possibly even prenatally. LITERATURE REVIEW 8 To fully understand the problems associated with the families that are affected by the use of
alcohol and drugs and what can be done to help prevent these problems our team will need to do
more follow-up research.
IV. Statement of the Research Problem What are the effects on children being born and exposed to alcohol and other drugs? LITERATURE REVIEW 9 References
American Academy of Pediatrics. (4/29/2016). Tv alcohol advertising may play a role in Underage Drinking. Retrieved from http://www.aap.org/enus/abouttheaap/aappress
Cannon, M. J., Guo, J., Denny, C. H., Green, P. P., Miracle, H., Sniezek, J. E., & Floyed, L. R. (April 2015). Prevalence and Characteristics of Women at Risk for an AlcoholExposed Pregnancy (AEP) in the United States: Estimates from the National Survey of Family Growth. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(4), 776782.
Dore, M. M., NelsonZlupko, L., & Kaufmann, E. (1999). "Friends in need": Designing and implementing a psychoeducational group for school children from druginvolved families. Social Work, 44(2), 179190. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/619418770?accountid=458
Dore, M. M., Kauffman, E., NelsonZlupko, L., & Granfort, E. (1996). Psychosocial functioning
and treatment needs of latencyage children from druginvolved families. Families in Society, 77(10), 595604. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/230155364?accountid=458
Dyer, O. (March 22, 2016). US Pledges better protection for babies born to addicts. British Medical Journal, 352, 1. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org.contentproxy.phoenix.edu/10.1136/bmj.i1679
Fisher, G. L., & Harrison, T. C. (2013). Substance abuse: Information for school counselors, social workers, therapists and counselors (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education LITERATURE REVIEW
Frost, E., Gist, R. S., & Adriano, E. (01/01/2011). Drugs, Alcohol, Pregnancy, and the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. International Anesthesiology Clinics, 49(1), 119133.
Health Day. (May 17, 2016). Middle Schoolers Exposed to Alcohol Ads Every Day: Study. Retrieved from http://consumer.healthday.com/kidshealthinformation23/kidsandalchol
Johnson, J. L., & Left, M. (1999). Children of Substance Abusers: Overview of Research Findings. Pediatrics, 103(5), 1085.
Leedy, P.D., & Ormrod, J. E. (2010). Practical research: planning and design (9th ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson Education
Wallace, K. (September 9, 2016). The more alcohol ads kids see, the more alcohol they consume. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2016/09/07/health/kidsalcoholaids
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