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I was hoping to read about the causation behind terrorism, how it exist, what is being done internationally and domestically about terrorism, and who are the stakeholders in eliminating terrorism. As well as the terrorist organizations. Write a four to six (4-6) page paper in which you:

1.Give a brief explanation of your chosen topical area.

2.Based on your chosen topic, define the problems and challenges that exist in crime and criminology. Explain the historical issues that have contributed to the problems and challenges.

3.Address the internal and external stakeholders and how they contribute to both the problems and the solutions in crime and criminology.

4.Discuss the data and information that you have collected while conducting research on your topic. Discuss how the data relates to the problems and challenges in crime and criminology.

5.Develop a solution that addresses the problems and challenges in crime and criminology, based on your research.

6.Use at least six (6) scholarly sources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia,,,, and other open source Websites do not qualify as scholarly.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

?Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.

?Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student?s name, the professor?s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

can anyone add some more to my essay according to the professor feedback

Running Head: How Terrorism is Effecting the United States and Recent Legislation and Solutions Assignment 4, Part 1: Research Project Draft Submission


How Terrorism is affecting the United States and Recent Legislation and Solutions




Professor: Michael D. Winborne


CRJ 105: Crime and Criminal Behaviors


August 28, 2016 1 How Terrorism is Effecting the United States and Recent Legislation and Solutions


2 Terrorism is an activity that involves violent or life threatening acts. It also involves


intimidation or coercion of a civilian population or to influence the policy of a government by


intimidation or coercion. Terrorism also includes activities that affect the conduct of the


government by mass destruction, assassination or kidnapping that occurs primarily within the


territorial jurisdiction of the United States (Echebarria-Echabe & Fernández-Guede, 2006).


Therefore, terrorism is a criminal act against civilians committed with the intention of causing


death or serious bodily injury, taking of hostages with the purpose of provoking a state of terror


in the general public.


The United States is faced with two major terrorist threats; Islamic terrorism and


terrorism from the Christianity identity. Both have common forms of terrorism that include;


hatred and paranoia, religious fanatic and elements of ethical sophistication.


The terrorism encountered today result arises out of complex causes that include pressure


from modernization, cultural, social and political crises, and alienation of young people living in


foreign societies (Lerner, Gonzalez, Small & Fischhoff, 2003).


Political alienation whereby terrorists from different nations are recruited from


populations with no voices in the government. The population is vulnerable to manipulation by


those who advocate a perverse political vision based on destruction and violence.


Terrorism results from an ideology that justifies murder where terrorism depends on the


appeal of an ideology that glorifies and excuses the deliberate killing innocents (Cassese, 2001). How Terrorism is Effecting the United States and Recent Legislation and Solutions


3 Grievances that can be blamed on others lead to terrorism. Terrorists may feel injustice from the


recent or distant past, and this rhetoric feeling keeps on wounding them, as a result they are


motivated by revenge and terror.


The subculture of conspiracy and misinformation make it possible for terrorists to recruit


effectively from a population whose information about the world is polluted by corrupted and


falsehood conspiracies. The distortion of information keep alive the grievances and facts are


filtered out hence prejudice that serves as propaganda.


In order to defeat terrorism, in the long run, the United States of America has been forced


to address the issue by amending its legal framework. Effective democracy provides a counter to


each by diminishing the underlying conditions that terrorism seek to exploit. In respect to


alienation, democracy has offered an ownership stake in society a chance of shaping one?s future.


In place of ideology, that justifies murder, democracy provides human dignity that deters


someone from deliberately targeting the innocent ones. During grievances, democracy offers the


rule of law for peaceful resolutions.


Several approaches have been developed to understand counter-terrorism legislation;


Conservative or Orthodox approach


It is a method of protecting national security or civil liberties Cassese, A. (2001).


Terrorism is also disrupting some crucial legal categories of international law. European Journal


of International Law, 12(5), 993-1001.


Human security is the necessary precondition to the exercising of all other human rights.


Any time the government enacts counter-terrorism legislation in the pursuit of human security,


the law must be ultimate by promoting human security through preserving a society in which the How Terrorism is Effecting the United States and Recent Legislation and Solutions


4 rights and freedoms are exercised. The public and human safety is an essential part of human


rights and fundamental freedom. Protection of this right does not mean the violation of it at the


same time. Counter-terrorism legislation should be viewed as black and white where national


security and human rights is opponent to each other. One human right is not more valuable or


important than the other. In the modern legal system, it is crucial to recognize that a system is has


two basic kinds of norms; rules and principles.


Balancing approach


It integrates part of the modern politics and international security strategies. It balances


the human rights and fundamental freedoms as part of democratic processes. Balancing approach


is subject that to assessment for their compliance with constitutional norms. The importance of


human right is weighed against the importance of the societal interest in deciding whether to


adopt legislative action.


The USA Patriotic Act


The act was meant to improve the country?s counter-terrorism effort in several crucial ways. It


was passed by the Senate unanimously.


The Act gives powers to investigators to use the tools that were already available to


investigate organized crime and drug trafficking. Also, permission to law enforcers to use


surveillance against more crimes of terror by enabling investigators to gather information when


looking into full range of terrorism-related offenses, for example, use of mass destruction,


chemical weapons and the killing of Americans abroad. The act also allows federal agents to


follow sophisticated terrorists trained to evade detection since terrorists are sophisticated and


prepared to change locations and communication devices, the officials sought court permission to How Terrorism is Effecting the United States and Recent Legislation and Solutions


5 the same techniques in security investigation so as to track terrorists. The law enforcers are


allowed to conduct investigations without leaking the information to the terrorists; delayed


notification is prompted so that to give time for criminal identification, elimination of threats to


the public and coordination of multiple arrests. The court has rendered it entirely constitutional


since it has proven itself crucial in drug and organized crime cases.


The Patriotic Act facilitated sharing of information and cooperation amount the agencies


of the government to enable better connection of dots. The information shared is used by


prosecutors to bring charges against the affected individuals.


The Patriotic Act led to the updating the law to reflect new technologies and new threats.


The act brought up to date with current technology. Digital battle cannot be fought with antique


weapons that were used in the era of rotary telephones. The bill allows victims of computer


hacking to request law enforcement assistance in the monitoring of the people who trespassed on


their computers, for example, burglary victims have been able to invite officers into their homes


to catch burglars. It also aids law enforcement officials in obtaining a search warrant anywhere a


terrorist activity occurred regardless of where they will be prosecuted. It has streamlined the


search warrant process.


The Patriotic Act led to an increase in the penalties for those who commit terrorist crime


both at home and abroad. It prohibits the harboring of terrorists through the creation of a new


offense that prohibits knowingly persons who are responsible or are about to commit terrorist


offenses, for example, use of biological weapons, weapons of mass destruction, nuclear,


chemical and aircraft piracy. It also enhanced the inadequate maximum penalties for various


crimes that are likely to be committed by a terrorist, for example, destruction of energy facilities, How Terrorism is Effecting the United States and Recent Legislation and Solutions


6 destruction of national defense materials and arson. The act also enhanced some conspiracy


penalties, punishes bioterrorists and terrorists on mass transit systems and eliminating the


statutes of limitations for certain terrorism crimes and lengthening them for other terrorist




The United States has established protective measures that further reduce the nation?s


vulnerability to the attack. The measures include;


Legal safe havens ? some of the legal systems lack adequate procedural, substantive and


international assistance laws that facilitate the effective investigation, prosecution, and


extradition of terrorists. The United States has developed a domestic legal framework that


supports effective research and prosecution of terrorist activities while preserving individual


privacy. The amendments include; rights of association, religious freedom, free speech and other


civil rights. America has continued to work with foreign partners in to build their legal capacity


of investigation, prosecution both locally and internationally.


Cyber havens ? the internet provides anonymous and inexpensive geographical unbounded and


largely unregulated virtual haven for terrorists (Abramowitz & Bosworth, 2003). Terrorists use


the internet for disseminating propaganda, recruiting new members, raising and transfer of funds,


train members on weapons use and tactics and plan their operations. The internet has provided an


opportunity for the United States an opportunity for exploitation, they also promote truthful and


peace by disregarding propaganda.


Legal framework for detention - The United States has laid down the legal framework for


detention. The law contains some creative solutions to challenges faces by the United States. It


introduces internment as a regime whereby miscreant can be interned during actions in aid of How Terrorism is Effecting the United States and Recent Legislation and Solutions


7 civil power. The legal framework for detention curbs the temptation of intelligence and law


enforcement agencies to engage in extrajudicial killings


Deny terrorist entry to the United States and disrupt their travel internationally ? barrier to travel


on terrorists across the country and within its borders has significantly impeded their mobility


thus inhibiting their effectiveness (Abramowitz & Bosworth, 2003). Terrorists rely on networks


which are illicit in order to facilitate their travel and obtaining false identification documents


through theft and forgery operations. The US has continued to enhance security of the people


through a layered system of protections along its borders, ports, roadways, railways and the


skies. Technology has been enhanced to reduce vulnerabilities in the diverse and dynamic


transport network. All the efforts has been driven towards enhancing aviation security, promotion


of secure travel and identity documents, improvement border security and visa screening.


Deny terrorists the support and sanctuary of rogue states ? the Unites States makes no distinction


between those committing acts of terror and those support and harbor terrorism. The government


disrupts resources from states to terrorists.


Denying terrorist control of any nation they would use as a base and launching pad for terror ?


terrorists are striving to claim a strategic country as a haven for terror. The United States has


continued to prevent terrorists from exploiting ungoverned or under governed areas as safe


havens. References How Terrorism is Effecting the United States and Recent Legislation and Solutions


8 Echebarria?Echabe, A., & Fernández?Guede, E. (2006). Effects of terrorism on attitudes and


ideological orientation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36(2), 259-265.


Kunreuther, H., & Michel-Kerjan, E. (2004). Policy watch: challenges for terrorism risk


insurance in the United States (No. w10870). National Bureau of Economic Research.


Abramowitz, M., & Bosworth, S. (2003). Adjusting to the new Asia. FOREIGN AFFAIRS-NEW


YORK-, 82(4), 119-131.


Lerner, J. S., Gonzalez, R. M., Small, D. A., & Fischhoff, B. (2003). Effects of fear and anger on


perceived risks of terrorism a national field experiment. Psychological science, 14(2), 144-15


Cassese, A. (2001). Terrorism is also disrupting some crucial legal categories of international


law. European Journal of International Law, 12(5), 993-1001.


Whidden, M. J. (2000). Unequal justice: Arabs in America and United States antiterrorism


legislation. Fordham L. Rev., 69, 2825.


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