Question Details

[solution] »

I need someone to review and make edits (especially with APA formatting) to the final paper for m

Brief item decscription

Answer Download

Item details:

I need someone to review and make edits (especially with APA formatting) to the final paper for my psychology class on an experiment that was conducted.



1 Healthy Eating Treatment Project




Washington State University HEALTHY EATING TREATMENT PROJECT 2 Abstract


The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not increasing available time to prepare


meals has an effect on frequency of preparing and consuming healthy, home-cooked meals.


This is a within-subject study with one participant which took place over the course of three


weeks with a token economy with a continuous reinforcement schedule. With each week of


treatment, the available time for preparing meals was increased by 5 minutes, starting from


10 minutes. The results of the experiment indicated a positive correlation between the two


variables, as indicated by a significant increase in the frequency of the target behaviour. HEALTHY EATING TREATMENT PROJECT 3 Healthy Eating Treatment Project


Self-control is an individual?s capacity to alter its own responses. It is a deliberate and


conscious effort to exert control over one?s actions, allowing a person to restrain or override a


dominant response to a stimulus. Self-control is extremely important, as it is what allows


humans to rise over animalistic instinct and make informed decisions based on future goals


and consequences. According to the theory of behaviourism, our behaviour is controlled


through events in our immediate environment, so self-control can be tied to these events.


Behavioural modification emphasizes the functional relationship between environmental


effects and behaviour, and it is important to understand how to identify and alter these events


in order to bring about changes in behaviour.


Goal-setting and mindset are two concepts that drive the desire for behaviour


modification and self-control. Goals increase motivation, focus our attention, and encourage


persistence, so setting goals for oneself is an effective way to motivate behaviour


modification. This is accomplished by making a specific statement of a final goal, and then


breaking it into sub-goals that can be tackled individually. The way we approach our goals is


tied to the concept of mindset. A mindset is essentially the way we perceive the world and


there are two types of mindsets that are relevant to self-control and behaviour modification:


fixed and growth. A fixed mindset views ability as a fixed trait, with talent and skill being


things that we are born with. People with this mindset typically respond to failure by giving


up and view intelligence as a ?statistic attribute, [with] poor performance on an intellectual


task [being] primarily attributed to a lack of intelligence? (Vandewalle, 2012) .A growth


mindset views ability as something to be developed, and people with this mindset view


failure as ?a signal of the need for more effort and an improved strategy? (Vandewalle, 2012).


Behavioural dimensions are aspects of behaviour that can be quantified and measured.


These can include the intensity, frequency, or duration of behaviour, as well as other metrics. HEALTHY EATING TREATMENT PROJECT 4 This information is extremely useful, as it is how one gauges the effectiveness of behaviour


modification, as any modifications to behaviour can be observed through changes to


behavioural dimensions. Observing and documenting behaviour is typically done using a


three-stage process to identify behaviours and the events that influence them. The first part is


the antecedent, which is an event that ?sets up? the behaviour. This can be any number of


things, such as waking up tired or receiving a phone call. What is important is that the


antecedent is something in the environment or a situation that causes behaviour to occur. The


behaviour that follows is then informed by a resulting consequence. The consequence can be


anything that occurs as a result of the behaviour, and it alters the chances of repeat behaviour


in some way. These consequences come in the form of reinforcement and punishment, which


can both be positive or negative. Reinforcement increases the likelihood of repeat behaviour,


while a punishment decreases the likelihood. Positive reinforcement/punishment involves the


addition of a stimulus, which is perceived as beneficial or detrimental depending on the type


of consequence. Negative consequences see the removal of stimuli instead. The rate at which


reinforcements are applied is based on the schedule of reinforcement for the particular


treatment plan. These schedules vary based on whether they rely on instances of behaviour


(ratio) or the passage of time (interval), with these values potentially being fixed or variable.


Different schedules can produce different levels of behaviour reinforcement, so it is important


to choose the schedule that best fits the type of behaviour and individual being treated.


Examining responses ?under various schedule arrangements is a core component of many


analyses of operant behaviour? and much of what we know about applied behaviour analysis


comes from ?laboratory research involving the exposure of nonhuman subjects to a variety of


schedule arrangements? (Roane, 2008).


A token economy is a specific system of reinforcement that relies on rewarding tokens


to reinforce behaviour. These tokens themselves are relatively meaningless, but they are used HEALTHY EATING TREATMENT PROJECT 5 to track progress towards the target behaviour and can be exchanged for back-up reinforcers


that motivate behaviour. An example would be rewarding behaviour with fake money that can


be exchanged for some sort of prize in the future. This method of reinforcement can be quite


effective, as it provides an individual with a tangible method for tracking progress, as well as


periodically motivating the individual in a manner that they feel like they have control over. A


key aspect of a token economy is the response cost, which is a form of negative punishment


for undesirable behaviours that compete with the target behaviour. This is introduced after the


token economy has been in place for some time, and usually takes the form of taking back


tokens. It is important that these tokens can be regained through some sort of desirable


behaviour. The response cost serves as an important consequence to offset the reinforcements


provided by the token economy. A 2011 study done in Iran found that token economies had a


noticeable positive effect on academic achievement for students with intellectual abilities,


with the token economy reinforcements having a greater effect than basic social


reinforcement (Ashoori, Mizamani, & Sereshki, 2011).


For my treatment project, I decided to increase the frequency at which I prepare and


consume healthy, home-cooked meals. This is a behavioural deficit that I am hoping to


increase. The goal of this project is to move towards a healthier lifestyle and to reduce my


consumption of heavily-processed foods. This should hopefully help me with improving my


health and lowering my weight.


The operational definition of a healthy meal in this context is a meal prepared from its


starting ingredients (no pre-packaged ingredients that come prepared) that comprises all the


food groups from the Center of Nutrition Policy and Promotion?s food pyramid. My treatment


plan runs on a continuous ratio schedule, meaning that each instance of the desired behaviour


is rewarded. The secondary reinforcer for this experiment is snack food, exchanged for 3


tokens. Eating unhealthy or heavily-processed foods will incur a response cost of 1 token per HEALTHY EATING TREATMENT PROJECT 6 occurrence. This will serve as an effective consequence for undesired behaviour. My


hypothesis is that when I am pressured for time, I am likely to eat something unhealthy due to


the ease of preparation, and work against my goal of healthy eating as a consequence. As


such, it would benefit my treatment project to work towards a more organized schedule that


allows sufficient time to prepare meals each day. HEALTHY EATING TREATMENT PROJECT 7 Method




I was the only participant in this study. I am 22-year-old male university student who


is slightly overweight at 210 pounds.




Functional assessment/baseline chart. To determine the antecedents, behaviours,


and consequences, as well as the baseline frequency of behaviour, I used an ABC chart over a


weeklong baseline phase. This baseline phase began on September 26th and ended on October


2nd. Table 1 shows a variety of antecedents, behaviours, and consequences experienced during


this one week.


Treatment chart. I used a treatment chart to keep track of my behaviour frequency


and undesirable behaviours. This tracking was done over a three week period, starting from


October 16th and ending on November 6th. Table 2 shows my behaviour frequency, as well as


all instances of undesirable behaviour and token gain.


Pennies. Pennies were used as the tokens for my token economy during this study.


The pennies were earned on a continuous ratio reinforcement schedule and could be


exchanged for a back-up reinforcer for every 3 tokens.




This experiment used a within-subject design on a single participant. The independent


variable was free time (defined as time not spent a particular scheduled task) and the


dependent variable was the number of healthy meals prepared and consumed. The subject


simply planned his schedule with the intent of providing more time in the morning and


evening to prepare and consume healthy meals. In the first week, 10 additional minutes were


allotted for the subject?s morning routine, providing additional time for meal preparation. In HEALTHY EATING TREATMENT PROJECT 8 the second week, this was raised to 15 minutes. Due to extraneous circumstances, this was


not continued into the third week of treatment.




The number of healthy eating behaviours I performed each week increased from a


baseline of -1 to 6 during the peak of the treatment phase. This can be clearly seen by


comparing Table 1 to Table 2. Week 1 of treatment saw an increase in net behaviour


frequency from -1 to 5, while the increase in preparation time from Week 1 to 2 resulted in a


minor increase from 5 to 6 occurrences. Due to extraneous circumstances surrounding a


military simulation event where I spent several days away from home during Week 3, my


results for that week do nothing to support my hypothesis. Overall, the changes to preparation


time resulted in an increase in average frequency of healthy eating from -1 during the


baseline phase to 2.66 during the treatment phase.




I believe that my results support my hypothesis, but my findings are not entirely


conclusive. Increasing the amount of available time for meal preparation saw a significant


increase in occurrences of the target behaviour, but additional increases to this available time


did not result in another significant increase. However, I do believe that Week 3 of treatment


would have seen another significant increase if it had been a normal week, free of abnormal


circumstances outside the changes to the independent variable. The main strength of this


study lies in the ease of tracking the target behaviour, as it was well-defined and low in


number. Limiting the participant pool to one person also reduced the influences of


uncontrollable factors outside the experiment, though this also serves as a weakness to the


experiment?s design as well. The limitations of this study seem to lie mostly in its duration.


Two-and-a-half weeks of normal testing were not sufficient for me to gather completely


conclusive results. Additionally, the changes in the independent variable may not have been HEALTHY EATING TREATMENT PROJECT 9 significant enough from week to week to create significant change. Despite this, I can


reasonably conclude that increasing the available time to prepare and consume healthy meals


has a positive correlation with the number of healthy meals consumed. HEALTHY EATING TREATMENT PROJECT


10 References


Mirzamani, S. M., Ashoori, M., & Sereshki, N. A. (2011). The Effect of Social and Token


Economy Reinforcements on Academic Achievement of Students with Intellectual


Disabilities. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 6(1), 25?30.


Roane, H. S. (2008). On The Applied Use of Progressive-Ratio Schedules of


Reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(2), 155?161.


Smith-Nelson, L. J. (2016, Fall). Psychology 328 Lecture. Lecture presented in Washington


State University, Pullman, WA.


Vandewalle, D. (2012) ?A Growth and Fixed Mindset Exposition of the Value of Conceptual


Clarity?, Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 5(3), pp. 301?305. doi:


10.1111/j.1754-9434.2012.01450.x. HEALTHY EATING TREATMENT PROJECT


11 Tables and Figures


Table 1


Functional Assessment for Healthy Eating Behaviours


Healthy eating is defined as preparing and consuming a home-cooked meal from non-processed ingredients that


includes a proper balance of each food group, as defined by the Center of Nutrition Policy and Promotion. A


change in behaviour will be observed if the frequency of healthy eating increases.




Setting Event Antecendent






Consequence R+, R-, P+,






Did not sleep Slept in by


Made a Hot


Reduction in Saved time in R9:10




10 minutes


Pocket for












instead of










food, felt bad




Last class of


Went home




Increase in








day canceled early




time spent in








meal (steak,




Felt good






about eating


fruit for


healthy meal






Ran out of


Went to




Increase in


Felt good






food in


grocery store wellhealthy


about eating








healthy meal


meal (salad


with chicken


Healthy food Pand fruit,


is expensive




to buy




Did not eat






Reduction in Consumed








time at the


nachos for






CUB while






food, felt bad




Spent money


eating out




Human vs.


Decided to


Ate dinner at Reduction in Consumed








play in












to save time




food, felt bad Saturday,


6:00PM Sunday,


10:00AM Ran load of


dishes in


dishwasher Slept well Frying pan




due to being


washed Woke up


earlier than


expected Baked a


pizza Cooked full,








omelet, toast,


side of fruit) Reduction in




eating Increase in




eating Spent money


eating out






effort in food








food, felt bad




healthy food,


felt good PR- P+




12 Table 2


Tx Phase


The target behaviour of eating healthy meals is operationally defined as the number of nutritious


home-cooked meals that I prepare and consume during a single day.


The primary interfering behaviour observed during the functional assessment is eating heavilyprocessed foods or outside my home.


I will reinforce my behaviour of eating healthy meals on a CRF schedule of reinforcement. This


means that for every time I prepare and consume a healthy meal, I?ll earn 1 token.


I will incur a response cost of 1 token for each time I eat an unhealthy meal.


I would like to increase my target behaviour from 3 times per week to 7 times per week. This means


that, if I reach my goal, I will earn 7 tokens per week.


When I earn 3 tokens, I will ?buy? my backup reinforcer of a snack food, such as a small bowl of ice






Frequency of


Frequency of






preparing and










unhealthy meal


or outside food


Monday 17/10




Earned 2 tokens


Tuesday 18/10






Earned 1 token,


Ate lunch at CUB


lost 1 token


due to time




Wednesday 19/10 II


Earned 2 tokens






Lost 1 token


Did not eat lunch,




at dinner at Red




Friday 21/10




Earned 1 token


Saturday 22/10






Earned 1 token,


Went to friend?s


lost 1 token


home in Moscow


for most of day


Sunday 23/10




Earned 1 token


Net tokens earned for week 1: 5 tokens


Will try to do


better next week,


but good first




Added 10 minutes


to morning




Monday 24/10




Earned 1 token


Tuesday 25/10






Earned 1 token,


Ate lunch in CUB


lost 1 token


Wednesday 26/10 II


Earned 2 tokens


Thursday 27/10






Earned 1 token,


Slept in, made


lost 2 tokens


Hot Pocket for


breakfast and ate


lunch in CUB


Friday 28/10






Earned 1 token,


Ate lunch at


lost 1 token




Saturday 29/10




Earned 2 tokens


Sunday 30/10




Earned 2 tokens


Net tokens earned for week 2: 6 tokens






for morning




Monday 31/10


Tuesday 1/11 II


I I Wednesday 2/11


Thursday 3/11 II


I II Earned 2 tokens


Earned 1 token,


lost 1 token


Earned 2 tokens


Earned 1 token,


lost 2 tokens Friday 4/11 II Lost 2 tokens Saturday 5/11 II Lost 2 tokens Net tokens earned for week 3: -1 token Ate lunch in CUB


Spent most of day


driving to Seattle


and on a plane.


Ate fast-food for


lunch and dinner


Attending a




simulation event,


mostly ate


military rations


and protein bars






simulation event,


still eating


military rations


Not surprised by


this week?s


results, due to








unable to prepare


meals in the field


Notice: Undefined index: payment_status in /home/aceyourh/ on line 248

About this question:

This question was answered on: Oct 14, 2020

PRICE: $20 (18.37 KB)

Buy this answer for only: $20

This attachment is locked

We have a ready expert answer for this paper which you can use for in-depth understanding, research editing or paraphrasing. You can buy it or order for a fresh, original and plagiarism-free copy (Deadline assured. Flexible pricing. TurnItIn Report provided)

Pay using PayPal (No PayPal account Required) or your credit card. All your purchases are securely protected by PayPal.

Notice: Undefined variable: ip_country in /home/aceyourh/ on line 456

Need a similar solution fast, written anew from scratch? Place your own custom order

We have top-notch tutors who can help you with your essay at a reasonable cost and then you can simply use that essay as a template to build your own arguments. This we believe is a better way of understanding a problem and makes use of the efficiency of time of the student. New solution orders are original solutions and precise to your writing instruction requirements. Place a New Order using the button below.

Order Now