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Substance abuse has always been a problem at colleges and universiti


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Substance abuse has always been a problem at colleges and universities. However, some are alarmed by the recent misuse of prescription medication and by the legalization of marijuana in some states. Many businesses are concerned that substance abuse will impact them if graduates (future employees) have developed a pattern of substance abuse while still in college.  An article reported that 46% of U.S. college students have been involved in some type of substance abuse.

Substance abuse has been a concern of the president of Rocky University for several years. Some faculty members in the university believe that substance abuse is more widespread at Rocky than at other universities, while other faculty members think that substance abuse is not a major problem in the college. To resolve some of these issues, the president of the university commissioned a study to assess the current substance abuse behavior of students at Rocky. As part of this study, an anonymous exit survey was administered to a sample of 90 students from this year?s graduating class. Responses to the following questions were used to obtain data regarding three types of substance abuse.

  1. During your time at Rocky, did you ever participate in binge drinking?
    ____ Yes____ No


  1. During your time at Rocky, did you ever abuse prescription medication?
    ____ Yes____ No


  1. During your time at Rocky, did you ever use any type of illegal or illicit drug (not included in questions 1 or 2)?
    ____ Yes____ No

Any student who answered yes to one or more of these questions was considered to have been involved in some type of substance abuse. The complete data set is in the file named Abuse, linked at the bottom of the page.

Managerial Report
Prepare a report (see below) for the president of the university that summarizes your assessment of the nature of substance abuse by students at Rocky University. Be sure to include the following seven (7) items in your report.

  1. To summarize the data, compute the proportion of all students, the proportion of all male students, and the proportion of all female students who
    1. Participated in binge drinking.
    2. Abused prescription medication.
    3. Used illegal or illicit drugs.Then comment on your findings.
  2. Develop 90% confidence intervals for the proportion of all students, the proportion of all male students, and the proportion of all female students who were involved in some type of substance abuse.
  3. Develop 90% confidence intervals for the proportion of all students, the proportion of all male students, and the proportion of all female students who participated in binge drinking.
  4. Develop 90% confidence intervals for the proportion of all students, the proportion of all male students, and the proportion of all female students who abused prescription medication.
  5. Develop 90% confidence intervals for the proportion of all students, the proportion of all male students, and the proportion of all female students who used illegal or illicit drugs.
  6. Conduct a hypothesis test (using either the p-value approach or the critical value approach) to determine if the proportion of all students at Rocky University who were not involved in some type of substance abuse is less than that of all U.S. students elsewhere.  Use ? = 0.10.Do not forget to include the correctly worded hypotheses.
  7. What advice would you give to the president of the university based upon your analysis of the data? What is the magnitude of the issue? What would you recommend for both students and faculty? What is the potential impact on relationships with the business community and what would you recommend?  How can this study be improved?

Write a report that adheres to the Written Assignment Requirements under the heading ?Expectations for CSU-Global Written Assignments? found in the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA Requirements.  As with all written assignments at CSU-Global, you should have in-text citations and a reference page. An example paper is provided in the MTH410 Guide to Writing with Statisticslinked at the bottom of the page.

Be sure that your report contains the following:

  • A title page in APA style.
  • An introduction that summarizes the problem.
  • The body of the paper should answer the questions posed in the problem by communicating the results of your analysis. Include results of calculations, as well as charts and graphs, where appropriate.
  • A conclusion paragraph that addresses your findings and what you have determined from the data and your analysis. 
  • In-text citations from a minimum of three sources 
  • A reference page.

Be sure to submit your Excel file as well. 


Running head: GUIDE TO WRITING WITH STATISTICS MTH410 Guide to Writing with Statistics

 

CSU-Global Campus

 

October, 2014 1 GUIDE TO WRITING WITH STATISTICS 2 Introduction

 

The purpose of this paper is to provide some general guidance in the writing of papers

 

using statistics and associated tests. The paper provides some general tips for writing and the use

 

of statistics. An example prompt is included, followed by a sample paper.

 

General Tips for Writing a Math Paper: Organization:

 

o Turn your prompt into headings for paper sections. This will help you to make

 

sure you include all of the required information and analysis. It also helps the

 

reader identify the material.

 

o Your paper needs: A separate title page using APA style requirements (running header, page

 

numbers, course, instructor, your name, date, etc.). An introduction (often a summary or abstract of the problem). A body of the paper that answers the questions posed in the problem and

 

includes calculations and graphs associated with this problem. This is

 

where you can turn your prompt into headings. All references need to be

 

properly cited. A conclusion paragraph that addresses your findings and what you have

 

determined from the data and your analysis. A separate sheet for references.

 

o There are templates that use APA style that you can insert your material into. If

 

you really struggle with formatting, this may be an option for your first paper or

 

two. If you use a template, remember to double-check it to remove any extra

 

instructions or pages or other elements that weren?t used.

 

In general, numbers less than 10 are to be written in word form. However, if you have

 

numbers in this range that carry decimals, write them in numeral form.

 

Never use or interpret a statistic or test that you don?t fully understand.

 

Target your audience and present as much information as necessary to allow the reader to

 

make an independent interpretation.

 

Make use of graphs and tables to display information in an easily understood manner.

 

Format them the same throughout, and make sure you don?t manipulate axes.

 

If you are referring to a statistic that is less commonly used, explain how you calculated

 

it. (It is not necessary to explain mean, but it may be necessary to explain how you set up

 

an ANOVA test.)

 

Be clear about your sample and its corresponding population.

 

Be direct in writing descriptive statistics (The mean in Group A is 22.9 units.). GUIDE TO WRITING WITH STATISTICS 2 Translate the meaning of the statistic for the reader. Write plainly and then back it up with

 

statistical evidence. For example: Men and women scored equally well on this study (t =

 

0.25, p < 0.01).

 

For additional resources see the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA Requirements or

 

visit https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/672/ GUIDE TO WRITING WITH STATISTICS 3 Prompt for Sample Paper:

 

Critical Thinking: Heavenly Chocolates

 

Website transactions are an important segment of sales and distribution today. Heavenly

 

Chocolates manufactures and sells quality chocolates at its plant and retail store in Bozeman,

 

MT. Three years ago, the company developed a website and began sales on the internet. Website

 

sales have exceeded expectations and management is now considering strategies to continue to

 

increase its sales. To learn more about its sales, Heavenly Chocolates selected a sample of 50

 

random transactions from its previous month?s sales. The transaction data shows the day of the

 

week the purchase was made, the type of browser used in the transaction, the time spent on the

 

website, the number of website pages viewed, and the amount spent by the customer. The data is

 

shown in a file named Chocolate.

 

Heavenly Chocolates would like to determine if time spent on the website or the number

 

of pages viewed influence the total purchase. They would also like to examine any effect that day

 

of the week and browser type have on sales.

 

Managerial Report

 

Prepare a report (see below) using the numerical methods of descriptive statistics presented in

 

this module to learn how the variables contribute to the sales of chocolate. Be sure to include the

 

following four (4) items in your report.

 

1. Descriptive statistics (mean, median, range, and standard deviation) for each of the three

 

variables along with an explanation of what the descriptive statistics tell us about the

 

sales.

 

2. A breakdown using descriptive statistics examining the effect of days of the week on

 

sales. Evaluate the results.

 

3. A breakdown using descriptive statistics examining the effect of browser type on sales.

 

Evaluate the results.

 

4. Descriptive statistics (correlation coefficient) showing the relationship between sales (in

 

dollars), and each of the other two variables. Evaluate the relationships between sales (in

 

dollars) and each of the other variables (time spent and pages visited). Use tables, charts,

 

graphs, or visual dashboards to support your conclusions. Make recommendations for

 

continuing to develop sales to the management.

 

Write a report that adheres to the Written Assignment Requirements under the heading

 

?Expectations for CSU-Global Written Assignments? found in the CSU-Global Guide to Writing

 

and APA Requirements. As with all written assignments at CSU-Global, you should have in-text

 

citations and a reference page.

 

Your report must contain the following: A title page

 

An introduction GUIDE TO WRITING WITH STATISTICS 4 A body of the paper that answers the questions posed in the problem and calculations and

 

graphs associated with this problem.

 

A conclusion paragraph that addresses your findings and what you have determined from

 

the data and your analysis. Submit your Excel file in addition to your report.

 

Note: Prompt adapted from the ?Heavenly Chocolate Website Transactions Case Problem 4,? D.

 

Anderson, D. Sweeney, T. Williams, J. Camm, & J. Cochran, 2015, Essentials of statistics for

 

business and economics. (7th ed.), p. 167,168. The following pages contain the sample paper corresponding to the prompt written

 

above. Read through it for ideas on how to write your own papers. HEAVENLY CHOCOLATES WEB SALES ANALYSIS (Sample) Heavenly Chocolates Web Sales Analysis

 

Student Name

 

MTH410 ? Quantitative Business Analysis

 

Colorado State University?Global Campus

 

Instructor Name

 

Date 1 HEAVENLY CHOCOLATES WEB SALES ANALYSIS (Sample) 2 Heavenly Chocolates Web Sales Analysis

 

Website transactions are an important segment of sales and distribution today. Any

 

business developing a market for online sales would be wise to analyze data from both the

 

general marketplace and its own specific customer segment. Analysis of this data can provide

 

insight into further development of sales. Heavenly Chocolates data-mined their transactions for

 

the previous month to gather a random sample of 50 customer transactions. The sample recorded

 

the day of the week the purchase was made, the type of browser used in the transaction, the time

 

spent on their website, the number of website pages viewed, and the amount spent by the

 

customer. The purpose of this analysis is to determine if the time spent on the website or the

 

number of pages viewed influences the total purchase. The impact of day of the week and

 

browser type on sales will also be studied.

 

Overview of Online Sales

 

The 50 customers sampled spent a total of $3,406.41 in the previous month. This is an

 

average of $68.10 per customer. The purchases ranged from a $17.80 to $158.50. The average

 

customer spent 12.8 minutes on the website. Time spent on the website ranged from 4.3 minutes

 

to 32.9 minutes. The typical customer viewed almost five pages, with two as the minimum and

 

ten as the maximum. The data set is summarized below in Table 1.

 

Table 1

 

Summary of Online Sales Sample

 

Time (min) Pages Viewed Amount Spent ($) mean 12.8 4.8 68.1 median 11.4 4.5 62.2 std dev 6.1 2 32.3 min 4.3 2 17.8 HEAVENLY CHOCOLATES WEB SALES ANALYSIS (Sample) 3 Table 1

 

Summary of Online Sales Sample (Continued)

 

Time (min) Pages Viewed Amount Spent ($) max 32.9 10 158.5 range 28.6 8 140.7 SUM ($) 3406.41 Note: Data compiled from the ?Heavenly Chocolate Website Transactions Case Problem 4,? D.

 

Anderson, D. Sweeney, T. Williams, J. Camm, & J. Cochran, 2015, Essentials of statistics for

 

business and economics. (7th ed.), p. 167,168.

 

Impact of Day of the Week on Sales

 

The daily sales breakdown reveals some interesting patterns. Sunday is the lowest sales

 

day, from the perspective of both total sales ($218.15) and average sales ($43.60). Monday and

 

Friday were the best days in terms of overall sales performance. Monday had the highest mean

 

(average) sales at $90.40, while Friday had the highest total sales at $945.43 for roughly 28% of

 

the sample total. See Table 2 for a complete breakdown of the impact of the day of the week on

 

amount spent, time spent on the website, and number of pages viewed.

 

Table 2

 

Breakdown of Sales by Day of the Week

 

Sun Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Total mean 43.6 90.4 59.3 57 58.8 85.9 54.1 68.1 median 37.2 104.2 67.4 53.4 59.2 70.4 55.6 62.2 std dev 12.8 43.5 14.6 24.5 30.4 33.9 17.7 32.3 min 32.7 26.7 39.1 32.7 17.8 52.1 27.9 17.8 max 64.2 158.5 74.4 94.9 91.6 155.3 78.6 158.5 range 31.4 131.8 35.4 62.2 73.8 103.2 50.7 140.7 count 5 9 7 6 5 11 7 50 Total Sales HEAVENLY CHOCOLATES WEB SALES ANALYSIS (Sample) 4 Table 2

 

Breakdown of Sales by Day of the Week (Continued)

 

Sun

 

SUM ($) 218.15 Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Total 813.38 414.86 341.82 294.03 945.43 378.74 3,406.41 Time Spent

 

mean

 

median 11.4

 

11.7 15.3

 

13.3 12.7

 

10.6 12.4

 

12 10.9

 

8.1 12.3

 

9.7 13.2

 

13.3 12.8

 

11.4 std dev 2.2 7.4 6 4.8 7.1 7.8 4.3 6.1 min 8 7.3 7.8 5 6.2 4.3 6 4.3 max 14.3 30.1 24.7 19.5 23.3 32.9 18.1 32.9 range 6.3 22.8 16.9 14.5 17.1 28.6 12.1 28.6 Pages Viewed

 

mean 4.2 6.4 4 4.2 3.8 4.8 5.3 4.8 median 4 6 4 4.5 4 4 5 4.5 std dev 1.9 2.1 2.1 1.5 2 2.3 1.1 2 min 2 4 2 2 2 3 4 2 max 7 10 7 6 7 10 7 10 range 5 6 5 4 5 7 3 8 Note: Data compiled from the ?Heavenly Chocolate Website Transactions Case Problem 4,? D.

 

Anderson, D. Sweeney, T. Williams, J. Camm, & J. Cochran, 2015, Essentials of statistics for

 

business and economics. (7th ed.), p. 167,168.

 

By almost every measure, Monday is the best day for sales. Friday follows closely (see

 

Table 2). It makes logical sense to recommend that the marketing department develop advertising

 

targeted for Monday and Friday. Weekends are subpar and midweek statistics are nearly

 

equivalent. Targeting sales or special packages for midweek may produce some increased traffic.

 

If these recommendations are implemented, follow-up analysis is recommended to see if the

 

desired results are being produced.

 

Impact of Browser on Sales HEAVENLY CHOCOLATES WEB SALES ANALYSIS (Sample) 5 There were also sales differences revealed by breaking the data down by browser type.

 

Customers using Internet Explorer to complete their transactions accounted for the highest total

 

sales at $1,656.81; however, this value was achieved on volume (see Table 3). Internet Explorer

 

had the lowest average sale at $61.36 while Firefox customers averaged $76.80 per transaction.

 

Table 3

 

Breakdown of Sales by Browser

 

Firefox Internet

 

Explorer Other Total mean 76.8 61.36 74.5 68.1 median 68 55.6 67.4 62.2 std dev 38.9 29.2 24.6 32.3 min 27.9 17.8 52.2 17.8 max 158.5 126.4 120.3 158.5 range 130.6 108.6 68.1 140.7 count 16 27 7 50 SUM ($) 1,228.21 1,656.81 521.39 3,406.41 Note: Data compiled from the ?Heavenly Chocolate Website Transactions Case Problem 4,? D.

 

Anderson, D. Sweeney, T. Williams, J. Camm, & J. Cochran, 2015, Essentials of statistics for

 

business and economics. (7th ed.), p. 167,168.

 

The opportunity here is to target premium packages for advertising specific to Firefox.

 

Value packages could be created for advertising specific to Internet Explorer. This promotion

 

should be combined with the recommendations given regarding days of the week and subjected

 

to a follow-up analysis to check for results.

 

Relationship between Amount Spent and Website Use

 

The other feature of this analysis is to evaluate the relationship between amount spent by

 

customers and how much time they spent on the website with the additional variable of number HEAVENLY CHOCOLATES WEB SALES ANALYSIS (Sample) 6 of pages viewed also taken into account. For this, a correlation analysis was performed. The

 

correlation coefficient between time spent on the website and amount spent in dollars was

 

moderately positive (r = 0.58). A similar moderately positive correlation coefficient (r = 0.60)

 

was found between the variables of time spent on the website and number of pages visited. The

 

strongest correlation was found between number of pages viewed on the website and amount

 

spent. This correlation coefficient (r = 0.72) approaches a strong positive correlation (see Figure

 

1). This suggests that there may be some merit in trying to guide customers to view more pages.

 

180.00

 

160.00

 

140.00

 

120.00

 

100.00 Dollars Spent 80.00

 

60.00

 

40.00

 

20.00

 

0.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Pages Viewed Figure 1. Relationship Between Pages Viewed and Dollars Spent. Data compiled from the

 

?Heavenly Chocolate Website Transactions Case Problem 4,? D. Anderson, D. Sweeney, T.

 

Williams, J. Camm, & J. Cochran, 2015, Essentials of statistics for business and economics. (7th

 

ed.), p. 167,168.

 

A common tactic is to guide customers to pages that have also been viewed by other

 

customers viewing the product on the current page. Another suggestion is to pair pages and

 

suggest that customers who purchased the product on the current page also frequently purchased

 

a product on the linked page. As with previous suggestions, follow-up analysis should be

 

performed to check results. On a cautionary note, this can be overdone. The statement from HEAVENLY CHOCOLATES WEB SALES ANALYSIS (Sample) 7 Essentials of Statistics for Business and Economics that correlation is a measure of linear

 

association and not causation should also be duly noted (Anderson, et al., 2015).

 

Conclusion

 

The analysis of this sample of 50 random customer transactions revealed several items to

 

be used in the development of continued growth at Heavenly Chocolate. There is positive

 

correlation between all three variables, but the strongest correlation is between number of pages

 

viewed and amount of sales. There is adequate reason to pursue linking pages and making

 

suggestions for customer purchasing. Monday and Friday are the best sales days. Firefox

 

customers spend the most, but Internet Explorer customers provide the highest volume.

 

Packaging and marketing strategies can be developed using this information. This analysis

 

validates the use of statistical tools to provide insight into new strategies. Follow-up analysis is

 

also mandated to find out if the strategies are producing results. HEAVENLY CHOCOLATES WEB SALES ANALYSIS (Sample)

 

References

 

Anderson, D.R., Sweeney, D.J., Williams, T.A., Camm, J.D., & Cochran, J.J. (2015). Essentials

 

of statistics for business and economics. (7th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning. 8

 


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