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To help you respond to the macro issues, such as content, organization, and other global issues needing revision, copy and paste the following questions at the end of the essay and respond to each in detail.
What is the writer's claim (thesis statement)? What three reasons does the writer give in support of her/his claim?
Evaluate the effectiveness of the writer's reasons. Does the writer provide sufficient evidence and reasoning to support the claim? Point out specific places where the evidence or reasoning should be strengthened.
How effective is the organization of the paper? Do the ideas flow smoothly with strong transitions between different topics? Are there paragraphs without strong topic sentences? Be specific in pointing out any areas of weakness.
Does the writer use credible (believable) sources? What characteristics of the sources lead you to conclude they are credible or not?
If you were to change one thing about the essay, what would it be? Please don't respond with "Nothing." Almost any piece of writing could be improved in some way. Think about places in the essay where you may have been confused or wanted more information if you are having a hard time thinking of anything.
To address the essay at the level of micro details that require editing, such as spelling, grammar, and punctuation, use the comments and track changes functions in Word to respond directly on your classmate's paper. For more details about micro issues, see the Introduction to Peer Review. Even if you think you don't have valuable feedback to provide, any question or comment that will make your classmate look more closely at an essay can be helpful. As you get more experienced at the peer review process, you will quickly learn that you are a much better editor of someone else's work than your own.
Running head: Genetically Modified Organisms. Genetically Modified Organisms and The Impact on Society
Adam Shawn Brock
ECPI University Running head: Genetically Modified Organisms. Introduction
The topic that will be discussed in this paper is a touchy subject known as Genetically
Modified Organisms. Since the dawn of mankind, humans have been selecting bigger and better
plants/animals for consumption. This included early nomads who picked out the biggest bull out
of the herd to inseminate the cows. This selective breeding led to humans being able to
manipulate what traits they wanted to surface. A Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) is
essentially just selective breeding. Genetic engineers take the wanted traits they require and
change the DNA structure to reflect the wanted organism. With this amazing technology, genetic
engineers can create a rice that contains high enough levels of sustaining vitamins to help
starving individuals in third world countries (Golden Rice Project, N.D). The issue with GMOs
is that they have caused a lot of friction with the population because there are patents being
created for certain DNA strains. An example is in 1982 the FDA approved an insulin produced
from a genetically engineered E. coli bacteria (GMO, 2013). GMOs are considered natural and
having a patent for something natural only creates population anger. The reasons why GMOs are
safer and healthier than non-GMO foods are as follows: GMOs are federally regulated, the
effects that GMOs have caused on the human body are minimal to non-existent, and the
controversy in GMOs are not so much fact related as they are superstition. tWith that being said,
there are positives and negatives about the GMO industry with several opposing sides.
The first GMO was introduced into our food supply in the mid-1990s (organics.com, 2015). With
this new introduction, came new advances in making herbicide resistant crops. Ninety three
percent of soybeans, ninety percent of corn and eighty two percent of cotton grown in the world
are herbicide tolerant. These crops can be planted early and the year and be sprayed with Running head: Genetically Modified Organisms. herbicide all year without becoming affected. On top of being herbicide resistant, GMO crops
can also be made pesticide resistant. Having a pesticide resistance only means the crops bring in
a higher yield. With a higher yield comes higher amounts of profit. Between 1996 and 2011 the
increase in production due to GMOs was over ninety-eight billion US dollars. With this amount
of profit GMOs have only become more popular. Because GMOs are a relatively new
technology, studies were done to show the impact of the modified foods. The studied (carried out
by Stanford University) concluded that there is no strong evidence that non-GMO food has more
nutrition or carry less health risks than the GMO counterpart. GMO foods are considered so safe
that the American Medical Associate, the United States National Academy of Science, and the
World Health Organization all have endorsed GMO food safety. With the approval of such big
organizations, genetic engineers have been tasked in using GMOs to end world hunger. The
previously mentioned golden rice project is the attempt engineers are using to end world hunger.
Golden rice is the coined term for a special strain of rice that is crossed between white rice and
sweet potatoes. Sweet potatoes contain high amounts of beta-carotene, a necessary chemical for
the human body to produce vitamin A. Vitamin A is important for eyesight health, the immune
system, and cellular health (Vitamin A, N.D). Unfortunately, in third world countries, having
nutritious food is short and lacking in supply. With golden rice, arguably one of the most
important GMOs, children in third world countries are now getting the necessary vitamins to
support a healthy immune system. Running head: Genetically Modified Organisms. one (left) Golden Rice (right) White Rice
With all of the pros that come with GMOs, unfortunately there are draw-backs. With the heavy
use of pesticides on global crops, herbicide resistant crops are now a rising issue. According to a
study by Pennsylvania State University in 2013, the heavy use of pesticides created a super weed
that can withstand high amounts of herbicide. Scientists predict the world could see more than
3.5 kg of herbicide used per hectare. Washington State University had a study stating a 404million-pound increase in pesticides were used between 1996 and 2011. To make matters worse,
the control of who receives GMO crops belongs to the sole ownership of that crop patent. Today,
six companies have the patents to seventy percent of the worlds crops. With this almost
monopolistic control, the companies can simply pick in chose who they want to help. This issue
became abundantly known in Uganda. An issue occurred where a bacterium, Xanthomonas
campestris pv. Musacearum was destroying Uganda banana yield (Okurut, 2007) (almost half of
the banana yields). To try to fix the solution Uganda attempt to obtain a GMO banana with the
bacteria resistance gene. Unfortunately, Uganda was denied any rights to having a resistant gene
and now Uganda has very little banana crops left. Running head: Genetically Modified Organisms. 2 Xanthomonas campestris pv. Musacearum or Xanthomonas wilt bacteria
In conclusion, the era of genetically modified foods has both positive and negative
attributes. With newer technology?s, a few kinks can only be expected. The industry of GMOs is
new and exciting with endless possibilities. From the information provided, GMOs have proved
the possibilities of ending world hunger and creating a super crop. With creating super crops a
side effect occurs and the generation of super weeds also emerge. To solve this problem organic
solutions could be the answer. An example of an organic solution would be using herbivores that
would consume these tolerant weeds. In such a profitable industry, the sky is the limit in finding
solutions to such a small drawback. Knowing this, the issue of six industries owning seventy
percent of the worlds GMO patents arises another issue. In order to solve such monopolies,
citizens much take action to break up large industries into smaller more manageable solutions.
Another solution is allowing individuals to purchase stocks, this allows for people to control the
industry. The future of GMOs resides on the future our world holds. With little drawbacks and
large potentials, the future of GMOs is endless. Running head: Genetically Modified Organisms. References
GMO Timeline: A History of Genetically Modified Foods - GMO Inside. (2013). Retrieved
December 13, 2016, from http://gmoinside.org/gmo-timeline-a-history-genetically-modifiedfoods/
Courtesy www.openwebdesign.org / Modified: Jorge Mayer. (n.d.). Golden Rice Project.
Retrieved December 14, 2016, from http://www.goldenrice.org/Content3-Why/why1_vad.php Pros and Cons of GMOs. (2015). Retrieved January 02, 2017, from http://organics.org/pros-andcons-of-gmos/ Office of Dietary Supplements - Vitamin A. (n.d.). Retrieved January 03, 2017, from
https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminA-HealthProfessional/ Okurut, W., Tushemereirwe, W. K., Aritua, V., & Ragama, P. (2007). Use of hebicides for control
of banana bacterial wilt in Uganda. African Crop Science Journal, 14(2).
1. In A Grain Of Golden Rice, A World Of Controversy Over GMO Foods. (n.d.). Retrieved
January 03, 2017, from http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2013/03/07/173611461/in-a-grain-ofgolden-rice-a-world-of-controversy-over-gmo-foods Running head: Genetically Modified Organisms. 2. Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum. (n.d.). Retrieved January 03, 2017, from
http://www.promusa.org/Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum
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