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Running head: GENDER INTERGRATION IN THE U.S ARMY INFANTRY Gender Integration in the U.S Army Infantry

 

Kenya J. Spratt

 

University of Maryland University College 1 GENDER INTEGRATION IN THE U.S ARMY INFANTRY 2 Executive Summary

 

The research conducted for this essay is based on gender integration in the U.S Army

 

Infantry; the benefits of integration, the challenges of gender integration, what the law says about

 

gender integration and the readily available steps that should be taken to ultimately achieve

 

gender integration.

 

Recently, the Secretary of Defense, Ash Carter, allowed for the lifting of combat

 

exclusion for females in previously closed occupations in the military. Females will now have

 

access to the all-male inclusive U.S. Army Infantry. This report will address and discuss the issue

 

and challenges the U.S Army Infantry will face with integrating females in this closed specialty.

 

The report will also discuss whether the enforcement of the policy change will be successful

 

without negatively impacting the end state of this specialty.

 

The report also looks at the current situation of the military and the positive impact that

 

the women have made since the lifting of the exclusion ban. Moreover, the reports handle how

 

the law has dealt with integration and the practices that have been put in place to promote gender

 

equality.

 

Finally, the report also discusses the actions that should be taken to ensure the complete

 

transformation and adoption of integration in all fields and the enforcement standards that need

 

to be put in place by the government and organizations against discrimination GENDER INTEGRATION IN THE U.S ARMY INFANTRY 3 Memo

 

To: Dr. Anne Opotowsky

 

From: Kenya J. Spratt

 

Ref: Gender integration in the U.S Army Infantry

 

Date: 30 July 16

 

REF: GENDER INTEGRATION IN THE U.S ARMY

 

Gender integration in the United States Army is a significant issue that should be

 

put into consideration. Before the integration lift, women were not allowed to perform some of

 

the tasks in the military like participating in direct combat. Instead, they only provided services

 

to those occupations who took part in combat directly. There have been changes in the army

 

since the lift of the exclusion of females from taking part in direct combat.

 

Several female service members pushed for gender equality in the recruitment process

 

and how it was conducted. The women, together with their lawyers pushed for the lift of the

 

gender exclusion ban because it violated their constitutional rights. The push for the lifting of

 

the ban was successful, and women were given equal opportunities in joining the military.

 

The effect of the lift has been evident through the positive achievements of women in the

 

army. Several women have been promoted to some of the top jobs. The law, however, needs to be

 

clear on the guidelines for the integration and the restrictions on integration. The government, on

 

the other hand, must put in place the measures that will lead to the ultimate realization of

 

integration.

 

Thank you. GENDER INTEGRATION IN THE U.S ARMY INFANTRY

 

Table of Contents

 

I. INTRODUCTION

 

a. The ban on females in the military

 

b. History of females in the military

 

c. History of the male dominated infantry specialty

 

d. The recent event of females in the military

 

e. The lifting of gender specific ban

 

f. Steps for a successful transition II. BODY

 

a. Recent Contributions of Females during the GWOT

 

b. Recent achievements of females in the Army

 

c. The reason the lift was implemented and public and internal reaction

 

III. Male Type-A dominated occupations are now gender integrated

 

a. Male only schools and courses must conform to gender integration

 

b. Infrastructure

 

c. Mentality must change

 

IV. Steps to conform to a seamless transition

 

a. Leadership training 4 GENDER INTEGRATION IN THE U.S ARMY INFANTRY

 

b. Soldier Training

 

c. Infrastructure preparation

 

d. Standards Enforcement

 

V. CONCLUSION

 

a. Summary

 

VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY 5 GENDER INTEGRATION IN THE U.S ARMY INFANTRY 6 Gender Integration in the U.S Army

 

Introduction

 

The ban of females in the military

 

Before the lift on the combat exclusion from aviation positions, women could not serve in

 

all the military capacity. Although the women played imperative roles I the military, they were

 

not allowed to participate in the combats; the women in the war included the nurses and the aides

 

(MacKenzie, 2012). The role of women in wars has been controversial despite the fact that the

 

women have been given some of the prominent positions in the military.

 

The history of females in the military

 

Women played integral roles in the military although they were not allowed to participate

 

directly in wars. They were aides and aircraft management. Before the World War I and II, the

 

women did not receive training to enable them to participate in combat missions (Goldstein,

 

2003). The world war period saw the integration of women take part in some direct wars in the

 

military and after the world war period, many nations began training women in readiness to

 

participate in combat missions.

 

The importance of including both men and women in the military was now evident. The

 

inclusion of women in the aviation was still not fair to the women because the number of men

 

recruitment in the military was still higher than that of the women. Half the positions were

 

available to the men, and the remaining half was given to both the men and the women.

 

The unfair inclusion of women in the military spiked debates on the importance of

 

women in the military. Lawyers argued that the deciding factors should be the qualification for GENDER INTEGRATION IN THE U.S ARMY INFANTRY 7 the recruitment and not the gender. The recruitment process was seen as a form of discrimination

 

on gender. Subsequent appeals of the combat exclusion policy in the military succeeded, and the

 

women were finally integrated into the military. Later, the aviation experienced changes like

 

mixed training to achieve efficiency and effectiveness.

 

Since the exclusion lift was not still clear, the Head Quarters Department issued

 

guidelines for the integration of the women in the military in August 2013. Today, more positions

 

are available to both the women and the men in the military (Segal, 1995). Before the exclusion,

 

only 67% of the positions were available to the women, but this has drastically changed to 95%

 

posts that are available to the women in the forces.

 

The history of the male dominated the infantry specialty

 

Infantry is the group of soldiers that engages in direct and close-ranged combat. The

 

infantry specialty was only for the men before the combat exclusion lift. The specialty receives

 

more physically and psychologically stressful training which is more demanding than any other

 

branch of the combat arms (Valimaki & Valimaki, 2005). Since the infantry soldiers engage in

 

combats on foot, they can easily maneuver sophisticated areas through the training that they

 

receive.

 

The field has been associated with men because it requires more and stressful training.

 

The men dominated in the infantry because of their physical superiority and an argument that the

 

women should be shielded from great physical risks and because cohesion would suffer from the

 

introduction of the women in the specialty (Valimaki & Valimaki, 2005). Furthermore, the men

 

dominated the infantry because they believed that inclusion of women would lead to a change of GENDER INTEGRATION IN THE U.S ARMY INFANTRY 8 dynamic because the specialty involved walking for long distances, and carrying loads of up to

 

50 pounds.

 

The male, as argued, were not prone to physical injuries during their training, unlike the

 

women. The men were also swifter than the women during combats because infantry involves a

 

lot of physical movement, and on foot. An example is when negotiating a wall obstacle. The

 

males would easily, throw their bags over the wall easily but the women would need assistance, a

 

continued practice that would jeopardize the whole mission.

 

Recent event of the female in the military

 

The contributions of women in the military have been commendable after the lift of the

 

combat exclusion ban. Women have achieved more goals and assisted in the defeat in some wars.

 

The women have been deployed in contingency operations in countries like Iraq and Afghanistan

 

(Burnes, 2008). The women have received praises for the great wars that they have been doing,

 

and two of the women have earned silver medals.

 

The laws excluding some of the women?s activities in combats have been reviewed and

 

amended in for the women. Today, the women are included in the units above the brigade level.

 

To some extent, the women have served with more patriotism, courage, and energy, making

 

remarkable progress and advancements.

 

Today, women successfully are in more complicated fields such as the fleet ballistic

 

missile submarines. Moreover, the president of the united states; Barack Obama, recognized the

 

efforts of the women in the military by nominating an air force lieutenant general Janet C.

 

Wolfenbarger to become the service first women four-star general. It is, therefore, clear that the GENDER INTEGRATION IN THE U.S ARMY INFANTRY 9 women have positively and unprecedentedly contributed to the military through their hard work

 

and dedication.

 

The lifting of the gender specific ban

 

The lifting of the gender specific ban became successful after the world wars when the

 

women were assigned to the armed forces. The achievement which, before, was highly debated

 

by lawyers and the Congress. The lawyers, therefore, pushed for changes in the combat exclusion

 

rule. After the ban had been lifted, women were still restricted from taking part in some military

 

missions like infantry (Burnes, 2008). This, therefore, pushed for the need for the amendment

 

clarifications on the ban.

 

The efforts of the law reformers were successful when on 19th April 2013, the Head

 

Quarters Department issued guidelines for the gender integration. Moreover, the women were

 

precluded in taking part military missions like the infantry.

 

Steps for successful transition

 

Although there have been changes for gender integration, there is still need for clarity and

 

transition to achieve the task ultimately. More laws have to be put in place on the clarity of

 

gender integrations in the military. For a successful transition, there is a need for leadership

 

training. The women in the military need to be trained and be equipped with both the combat and

 

leadership skills in order to improve their performance. The soldiers; women and men soldiers

 

need to receive the same degree of training. GENDER INTEGRATION IN THE U.S ARMY INFANTRY 10 THE BODY

 

Recent contributions of females during the GWOT

 

The women?s contribution the global war on terror has been significant (Burnes, 2008).

 

The women who have taken part in the terror fights although not all may be directly involved in

 

the wars, they contribute significantly through the provision of services such as gunners, medics,

 

truck drivers, military police and pilots. The women have promoted group intelligence because

 

they bring a unique level of social sensitivity which is important for military professionals.

 

Bridging the gender gap created a rapport and earned the trust of the Iraq women to

 

provide information free for fear of retaliation from the al-Qaeda. The women who were tired of

 

the continuous violence in their neighborhood could freely provide vital information to their

 

fellow women. It is, therefore, evident that women have played a critical role in dealing with the

 

terrorist group in Afghanistan and Iraq.

 

Recent achievements of females in the Army

 

There have been achievements of women in the military including the implementation of

 

the combat exclusion lift in females. First and foremost, Senior Master Sgt. Lorraine A. Hieskill

 

was the first female to receive the First Ai Force Medical Service Senior Non-Commission

 

Officer Leadership Award. Secondly, women have been included to serve in the fleet ballistic

 

missile submarines (Burnes, 2008). Another great woman is Colonel Jeanie Leavit, who was the

 

first women to take command of the air force combat.

 

The president of the United States, Barack Obama showed his support and positive stand

 

for the integration process. Barack Obama supported most of the women activities in the

 

military. Apart from the support, the president also nominated Air Force lieutenant general Janet GENDER INTEGRATION IN THE U.S ARMY INFANTRY 11 C. Wolfenbarger as the first four-star general. Lieutenant Janet later received her fourth star.

 

Another notable achievement was that of Captain Susan Marchiano; the first woman to serve as a

 

career flight surgeon. Captain Marchiano, during his services, had saved eighty-two lives and

 

assisted in saving one hundred and forty-three other lives(Burnes, 2008). The contribution of

 

women to the military is, therefore, evidently significant and their efforts should be rewarded.

 

The reason the lift was implemented and public and internal reaction

 

Among the reasons for the implementation integration in the military was the need to

 

practice equality in all sectors. The female service members pushed for the implementation so as

 

to give equal opportunity to all member of the society regardless of their sexuality. They argued

 

that the ban on women from taking part in some of the activities hindered the women?s abilities

 

to ascend to the top regarding leadership. The women could control and lead most of the

 

missions of the Army if only they were given the opportunity to show their skills.

 

In the intensified debates that took place, it was argued that the women were not given a

 

fair treatment as the men. The unfair treatment was as a result of the limitations of in recruiting

 

the women into the army. More chances were provided to the men than the women. There was

 

the need to explore the importance of the women in the military and this could only be done by

 

giving the women equal chances I the army as the men.

 

Furthermore, the need for the ban of the exclusion of women in the army was because the

 

women felt that their rights were being violated. Lawsuits from several former female workers

 

proved that the deciding factor in the recruitment of military members was gender and not a

 

qualification as it should have been.

 

Male Type-A dominated occupations are now gender integrated GENDER INTEGRATION IN THE U.S ARMY INFANTRY 12 Today, the issue of equality between sexes has become sensitive. The top professional

 

jobs that women were not allowed to apply for are now available to the women. The qualification

 

for the jobs today is not the gender but the professionalism and ability to perform the task that

 

the job requires. Some of the top executives today are women. Women have taken challenges and

 

applied for some of the most complicated positions. In politics, women have represented their

 

nations in summits and provide helpful and skillful ideas. The Chancellor Angela Markel is one

 

of the greatest women in the world who runs a great country. Others include Hillary Clinton,

 

currently running for the president of the united stated and Oprah Winfrey who had excellently

 

done well in the business market.

 

Schools and courses must conform to gender integration

 

In the education sector, the education process has been changed to support both the male

 

and the female genders. For instance, women were not allowed to take part in football and soccer

 

but today, competitions in the games involve both males and women. Technical fields like

 

engineering and medicine are now open to both the male and the females. There is no course for

 

the males that the female cannot take. All courses are therefore gender sensitive.

 

Infrastructure

 

Mentality must change

 

The negative thinking that women cannot perform the same responsibilities as men must

 

come to a halt. As proven, the women, if given chances and the support they need, can transform

 

the political, social, cultural and economic nature in the world. The continued debates on the

 

integration should, therefore, lead to laws supporting the norm of equality and fairness to the GENDER INTEGRATION IN THE U.S ARMY INFANTRY 13 whole society regardless of age. In giving out jobs, every member of the society should be

 

treated fairly, and the threshold for meeting the job, standards should be the same.

 

Steps to conform to a seamless transition

 

To achieve the ultimate goals of the integration, the government has to put in place some

 

guidelines and stop for the ultimate change

 

a. Leadership training

 

All organizations should adopt training that prepares every single individual with the

 

appropriate leadership skills. The army should equip the women with leadership qualities to

 

take charge in case of any emergency issue that requires the next available person to make a

 

call.

 

b. Soldier Training

 

The military should also provide the same kinds of training to both males and the

 

females. The training should not be discriminatory in that they take place differently. The

 

men should be given the opportunity to interact with the females and learn from each

 

other different skills. The interaction would lead to peaceful coexistence between the two

 

genders and promote teamwork when working on missions.

 

c. Infrastructure preparation

 

With the right infrastructure that supports the need for both the males and the females,

 

there would be a transformation of the perception of women in the army and other

 

complex fields. The women should have special and not complicated ways of accessing

 

places when on missions.

 

d. Standards Enforcement GENDER INTEGRATION IN THE U.S ARMY INFANTRY 14 The law should put in place and amend laws concerning the working conditions,

 

freedom, environment and payment of the workers. All employees, regardless of the gender,

 

should be treated equally and receive the same amount of payment (Eisenbud, & Gesell,

 

1997). The compensation of the employees in case of any fault during their course of work

 

should be compensated equally. Employers should be accountable and manage the health

 

risks of their workers.

 

Furthermore, the environment in which the employees work should be friendly and meet

 

the requirements and working conditions of professionals working conditions. No worker

 

should be overworked more than their fellow employees. Every member of the society is

 

equal, and there is no better citizen than their fellows.

 

V. CONCLUSION

 

a. Summary

 

In conclusion, it is, therefore evident the lifting of the exclusion ban led to better

 

performance in the military and that there have been successive achievements. The integration

 

should be adapted to all fields because the women have proven that they can be handled more

 

complicated situations; even those that require critical decision-making. The law should also be

 

clear on the guidelines for gender integrations implementation. GENDER INTEGRATION IN THE U.S ARMY INFANTRY 15 References

 

MacKenzie, M. H. (2012). Let Women Fight: Ending the US Military's Female Combat Ban.

 

Foreign Aff., 91, 32.

 

Goldstein, J. S. (2003). War and gender (pp. 107-116). Springer US.

 

Segal, M. W. (1995). WOMEN'S MILITARY ROLES CROSS-NATIONALLY Past, Present, and

 

Future. Gender & Society, 9(6), 757-775.

 

Välimäki, V. V., Alfthan, H., Lehmuskallio, E., Löyttyniemi, E., Sahi, T., Suominen, H., &

 

Välimäki, M. J. (2005). Risk factors for clinical stress fractures in male military recruits:

 

a prospective cohort study. Bone, 37(2), 267-273.

 

Burnes, T. (2008). Contributions of Women to US Combat Operations. ARMY WAR COLL

 

CARLISLE BARRACKS PA.

 

Eisenbud, M., & Gesell, T. F. (1997). Environmental Radioactivity from Natural, Industrial &

 

Military Sources: From Natural, Industrial and Military Sources. Academic press.

 


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