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I need help proofreading as well as strengthening my paper. Just looking for fine tuning, and plagiarism/citation correction.

Excluding title page and reference pages, paper must be 8-10 pages long.


Running Head: GENDER EQUALITY IN THE WORKPLACE Gender Inequality in the Workplace

 

Joanne Gill

 

SOC 307: Gender and Sexuality

 

Instructor: Nadia Khrais

 

November 28, 2016 1 Running Head: GENDER EQUALITY 2 Gender Inequality in the Workplace The glass ceiling is a barrier to advancement in a profession, especially affecting

 

women and members of minorities (Jones & Palmer, 2011). The glass ceiling is the

 

?attitudes and practices that keep women in many organizations and professions out of

 

the most powerful, influential, and prestigious positions because they are assumed to be

 

unfit for leadership. The tendency to see women as less competent than men and their

 

accomplishments as less worthy and significant is a prominent component of the glass

 

ceiling? (Beyond Bias and Barriers, 2007). Despite our many advances women still

 

struggle to break this ceiling, this inability results in women remaining in a disadvantaged

 

position. Sexism, discrimination, and family responsibilities

 

The Equal Pay Act of 1963 states;

 

?No employer having employees subject to any provisions of this section shall

 

discriminate, within any establishment in which such employees are employed, between

 

employees on the basis of sex by paying wages to employee in such establishment at a

 

rate less than the rate at which he pays wages to employees of the opposite sex in such

 

establishment for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, Running Head: GENDER EQUALITY 3 effort, and responsibility (SEC 206). Despite the existing laws, sexism and discrimination

 

still occur.

 

Sexism in the workplace ultimately affects the morale of its victims. Women who

 

suffer this type of injustice are unmotivated to effectively perform their jobs. Offensive

 

jokes of a suggestive or sexual nature and jokes imply that an employee?s work is inferior

 

due to her gender inhibits productivity. It is imperative that women follow protocols to

 

report sexism in the workplace, zero tolerance and whistle blower laws have been enacted

 

to protect victims of discrimination.

 

Women may experience discrimination in the workplace prior to being hired or

 

when they are passed over for promotions. Women are passed over for promotions due to

 

preconceived notions about their abilities and roles. For example, the United States Air

 

Force, which is embodies masculinity has never, since its conception, in 1964, had a

 

female Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force (CMSAF).

 

Women with children also experience discrimination due to family

 

responsibilities. Some women may not make it past the hiring process as employers may

 

believe that she will be torn between her job responsibilities and taking care of their

 

family. Albeit this is an illegal practice, it still exists. Home and childcare responsibilities

 

According to Pew Research Center data; Running Head: GENDER EQUALITY 4 ?Women are most often the ones who adjust their schedules and make

 

compromises when the needs of children and other family members collide with

 

work show. A 2013 survey, found that mothers were much more likely than fathers

 

to report experiencing significant career interruptions in order to attend to their

 

families? needs? (2015). With the many compromises, women are forced to choose

 

to between their careers or their family, one suffers at the expense of the other.

 

Men, on the other hand, do not usually face family-related career interruptions.

 

The biggest struggle that working mothers face is finding adequate childcare. The harsh

 

reality is that childcare is not as simple as some think. Some of the problems these

 

working mothers face are;

 

I.

 

II.

 

III. Licensed child care facilities can be expensive and usually have age restrictions.

 

Religious organization may be more affordable but they have the disadvantage of

 

having rigid hours that cannot accommodate late night shifts.

 

A friend or family member is a great option if available, they can offer trusted

 

care, flexibility and low cost or free. Measuring gender inequality in the workplace

 

Two ways that we can measure gender inequality in the workplace are quantitative

 

and qualitative approaches. Running Head: GENDER EQUALITY 5 Quantitative methods of data collection produce measurable results, such as

 

percentages of women and men in parliament, male and female careers in Science,

 

Technology, Engineering and Math or wage rates (Demetriades, & Esplen, 2008).

 

?Qualitative methodologies capture experiences, opinions, attitudes and feelings ?

 

for example women?s experiences of the constraints or advantages of working in the

 

informal sector. Qualitative data can also be collected through surveys measuring

 

perceptions and opinions? (Demetriades, & Esplen, 2008). Workplace Policies

 

Workplace policies or benefits such as flextime, telecommuting, job sharing, parttime work, childcare, parental leave, help women in the workplace. Flexible workplace

 

policies allow employees, both male and female to achieve a satisfactory work-life

 

balance.

 

The United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission states;

 

?Numerous studies have found that flexible workplace policies enhance employee

 

productivity, reduce absenteeism, reduce costs, and appear to positively affect

 

profits. They also aid recruitment and retention efforts, allowing employers to

 

retain a talented, knowledgeable workforce and save the money and time that

 

would otherwise have been spent recruiting, interviewing, selecting and training

 

new employees? (2009). Running Head: GENDER EQUALITY 6 In particular, these policies help support women, especially those with children by

 

enabling them to join and stay in the workforce without neglecting their childcare

 

responsibilities. These policies level the playing field so that women are able to compete

 

with men. International Comparison

 

Family policies are important because they affect health outcomes and reduce

 

wage inequities between women and men through increased job retention (Widener,

 

2007).

 

The workplace policies in Sweden are family friendly. on gender equality and workfamily reconciliation. The rationale for this is to help parents balance jobs and

 

responsibilities at home, and make it possible for women with children to remain in the

 

work force. For example, parents are entitled to 480 days of paid parental leave when a

 

child is born or adopted. This number is Sweden?s strongest argument when it comes to

 

being a child-friendly system. For 390 of the days, parents are entitled to nearly 80 per

 

cent of their normal pay (Abendroth,& Dulk, 2011).

 

The Unites States has introduced some initiatives of their own, such as the Family

 

and Medical Leave Act of 1993, which provides workers at companies of a certain size

 

with 12 weeks of unpaid leave (Eviston, 2011). While this means those individuals can

 

take the time off without fear of losing their job, in most cases the leave is unpaid. Running Head: GENDER EQUALITY 7 President Obama (2014) stated that, "The United States is the only developed

 

country in the world without paid maternity leave." The United States does not mandate

 

cash benefits for workers on maternity leave at the federal level, and just a small fraction

 

of its citizens live in states that require it or work for companies that provide it. In that

 

regard, the United States is very different than the rest of the developed world, where at

 

least some paid benefits exist in every country.

 

These policies reflect the importance that their respective societies place on gender

 

equality. The more restrictive the policy, the less that country allows for a balance

 

between family and work, the more disenfranchised the women of that population are.

 

Restrictive policies also promote the unequal distribution of a society's wealth, power,

 

and privilege between females and males. Policies such as the Family and Medical Leave

 

Act enable women to maintain their careers and a family life. Conclusion

 

Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn attribute the decrease in the female labor

 

force participation rate in the United States due to the lack of family-friendly policies

 

(2013). The mindset that men are the breadwinners is still prominent, things are slowly

 

changing, and people are beginning to acknowledge that women deserve all the same

 

opportunities as men. Public policies that allow women to enter the workforce and remain

 

employed despite obligations to their family, is one step in the right direction. Running Head: GENDER EQUALITY 8 References Abendroth, A., & den Dulk, L. (2011). Support for the work-life balance in Europe: the

 

impact of state, workplace and family support on work-life balance satisfaction.

 

Work, Employment & Society, 25(2), 234. doi:10.1177/0950017011398892

 

Beyond Bias and Barriers : Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and

 

Engineering. Washington, US: National Academies Press, 2007. ProQuest ebrary.

 

Web. 28 November 2016. Copyright © 2007. National Academies Press. All rights

 

reserved. on.

 

Blau, F. D., & Kahn, L. M. (2013). Female Labor Supply: Why Is the United States

 

Falling Behind?. The American Economic Review, 103(3), 251-256.

 

Demetriades, J., & Esplen, E. (2008). The gender dimensions of poverty and

 

climate change adaptation. Ids Bulletin, 39(4), 24-31.

 

Eviston, M. (2011). Front Pay under the FMLA. N. Ky. L. Rev., 38, 259.

 

The Equal Pay Act of 1963. Approved May 14, 1947. Retrieved from

 

https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/statutes/epa.cfm, SEC 206.

 

Jones, S. J., & Palmer, E. M. (2011). Glass ceilings and catlights: Career barriers for

 

professional women in academia. Advancing women in leadership, 31, 189. Running Head: GENDER EQUALITY US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2009). Employer best practices for

 

workers with caregiving responsibilities. Retrieved August, 6, 2009.

 

Widener, A. J. (2007). Family-friendly policy: Lessons from Europe-part I. Public

 

Manager, 36(3), 57.

 

Women more than men adjust their careers for family life. (2015, October 1). Retrieved

 

from PewResearch Center: http://www.pewresearch.org/facttank/2015/10/01/women-more-than-men-adjust-their-careers-for-family-life. 9

 


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