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Running head: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON CHILDREN 1 ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON CHILDREN JOYCE MABORNE ATTIA NOVEMBER 5,TH 2016 DR. WEINBERG PSY 444: HOW DOES A CHILD ENVIRONMENT INFLUENCES HIS LIFE INTO

 

ADULTHOOD 2 TABLE OF CONTENT Table of Contents

 

Abstract.................................................................................................................................................3

 

Introduction...........................................................................................................................................3

 

Background............................................................................................................................................4

 

Literature review...................................................................................................................................4

 

Hypothesis.............................................................................................................................................5

 

Research questions................................................................................................................................6

 

Methods................................................................................................................................................6

 

Research design.....................................................................................................................................6

 

Procedure, Sample and data sources.....................................................................................................7

 

Analysis and result/ findings..................................................................................................................7

 

Discussion..............................................................................................................................................9

 

Theoretical implication..........................................................................................................................9

 

Recommendation................................................................................................................................10

 

Limitation and future...........................................................................................................................11

 

Conclusion...........................................................................................................................................12

 

Reference.............................................................................................................................................13 3 ABSTRACTbstract

 

Many years ago, when I took my first Psychology course, I learned a quote by JeanJacques Rousseau that I have never forgotten. ?God makes all things good. Man meddles

 

with them and they become evil or remained good.? This is a powerful quote that relates

 

very well with my chosen topic. In translation, what Mr. Rousseau meant by men meddles is

 

that the environment plays with things and they become evil or remain good. I think we all

 

can agree that environment plays a crucial role in all children growth such as their emotions,

 

behaviors, outlook and attitudes based on Rousseau?s quote. With that said, how can a parent

 

tell if he or she is raising their child correctly? Is there a correct way to raise children? Some

 

would say yes while others would say no. But there is some universality in parenting and

 

family functioning if you do the research to see what brings out the best outcome for the child

 

well-being.

 

Psychologist today almost universality agree that child-centered disciple is the best

 

route to take while raising children. To ensure children understand what they did incorrectly

 

and try to fix it the next time; this type of disciple incorporates time-out and taking things that

 

the child plays with away for a period of time. But child well-being isn't all about discipline;

 

it has a lot to do with the interaction between the internal and external factors which includes

 

family, community environment and the societal landscaping. All these factors first hand

 

effects parents leading them to develop depression and other mental illness, which causes

 

psychological problems in children which is carried into their adult life. INTRODUCTION 4 Children growth and development are influenced factors, such as the genetic and

 

environment. These factors determine the future growth, behavior, personality, and

 

temperament ("Health: Poor child growth cements poverty", 2016). There are little affects in

 

genetic or heredity of a child because they are inherited directly from the parents. However,

 

the environment can be manipulated and used to determine how it affects the adulthood of the

 

child. The environmental factors can make or destroy the child?s future life. When the

 

environment is not conducive to children?s survival, then their future lives will not be

 

pleasing (Csizmadia & Ispa, 2013). For instance, when the child has not met dietary

 

requirements, they will suffer from nutritional deficiency diseases which will affect their

 

mental health and other organs of the body. The future life of such a child will be blurred

 

because he or she will be a slow learner in school. The liver will also be affected, affecting

 

other parts of the body. Such children will also have weak physical body growth.

 

However, when a child?s environment provides all the aspect of growth and

 

development, with less stress and straining, he or she will grow up vibrantly, with all the

 

aspects of growth and development well established (Baranowski, 2002). Such children will

 

be bright in school; their physical growth will be appealing, and they will be interactive in all

 

the social life. Many scholars have done extensive research in this area of study but only in

 

specific areas. This paper presents the research on the environment influence on the child?s

 

growth and development. It explores whether the environment can make or destroy the

 

child?s future life and all the environmental factors.

 

BACKGROUND

 

The environment is those elements that are found in the environment such as, food,

 

social influence, playing apparatus, and much more which affects the child?s growth and

 

development. These factors mentioned are not hereditary (Yoshida & Iwasaki, 2014). They 5 must be sufficiently provided for desirable growth and development. When they are

 

insufficient, then they will directly affect the future life of the child. Conducting research on

 

both the instances is possible. The study will compare growth and development for both the

 

children raised in the different environment.

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

The article Child development by Erika Hoff contains the specificity of environmental

 

influence about socioeconomic status and how they affect early vocabulary development and

 

via maternal speech (Hoff, 2003). The hypothesis tested showed children from the families of

 

different socioeconomic status in differ in their rates of productive vocabulary development.

 

The different is because of the different language learning experiences. There is also a

 

discussion of the implications of these findings for the mechanism of the environmental

 

influence on child development.

 

In the article Annual Review of Psychology, by (Bradley & Corwyn, 2002),

 

Socioeconomic status (SES) is another widely studied constructs in the social and

 

environmental sciences. Numerous ways of measuring SES have been proposed in this

 

article, some of which include family income, occupational status, and parental education.

 

Research indicates that SES is connected with an extensive collection of cognitive, health,

 

and socioemotional outcomes in children. These factors effects beginning before birth and the effects continue into adulthood.

 

The article has also proposed a variety of mechanisms connecting SES to child well-being.

 

Materials and social welfare are found to cause stress-induced conditions by both the children

 

and their parents. Another finding is that SME impacts the well-being of children at multiple 6 levels, such as neighborhood and the family. The effects found moderated by children's

 

characteristics, external support systems family characteristics.

 

In the article according to (Conradt, Measelle, & Ablow, 2013) contains the research

 

about whether infants reared in poverty exhibit some physiological traits that make them

 

susceptible to the negative and positive features of the environment. Article explore two

 

theories, the theory of biological sensitivity and differential susceptibility context. They were

 

evaluation whether the high baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia operates as sensitive issues

 

among those infants reared in poverty. The results found to have significant implications for

 

the psychological health of children living in poverty.

 

HYPOTHESIS

 

When children are exposed to the environmental influence, the factors of the

 

environment can make or break the adult lives of children. The environment setting

 

determines the physical or behavioral nature of the child. For example, poverty has diverse

 

effects on the child?s mental growth and physical growth and development. RESEARCH QUESTIONS

 

1. Do the environmental factors make or break the children adulthood? 2. How do the environmental factors make the children adulthood? 3. How do the environmental factors break the children adulthood? 7 4. Do infants reared in poverty exhibit certain physiological traits that make them susceptible to the positive and negative features of their caregiving environment?

 

METHOD

 

Methods of collecting data.

 

1. Survey. 2. Interview. 3. Observation.

 

RESEARCH DESIGN

 

The research was conducted through interviewing of the parents and asking the questions concerning the diet and the financial status (Serpell & Marfo, 2014). The data was

 

recorded in excel. The question included 50 families of different financial background.

 

Another set of question was conducted through the survey of homes and different school with

 

playing apparatus and the ones without. The results were also tabulated in Excel. PROCEDURE, SAMPLE and DATA SOURCES

 

Sources of the data were from parents who gave the financial information data. They

 

also gave the diet information. Another source of data was the baby sitters; they provided the

 

data on the frequency of providing food and the safety of the environment the child is raised.

 

Teachers also gave various data concerning the playing ground and playing apparatus. They

 

also provided information on the children performance and the diet. All the data were 8 recorded in Excel. Lastly, the direct observation of the nature of the environment also gave

 

some data

 

ANALYSIS and RESULTS and FINDINGS 9 The data collected in Excel was then interpreted in using different ways of interpreting data such as

 

the use of graph and charts. The following are the maps drawn from the data collected. Figure 1 shows the diet, object apparatus of the middle class can afford and the influence

 

they have on the health. 10 The above graph shows the number of middle class household that can afford the

 

balanced died in all the meals of the day and the incidences of diseases. It shows that

 

balanced diet is sufficient in all the categories with the worse being eight. The homes with

 

playing materials are also average. Meaning most children will grow physically. Finally, the

 

prevalence of diseases is relatively low, maybe because of the balance diet received everyday. Figure 2 shows the families who can afford diet, abject apparatus for play and the number of

 

sickness cases with two months. The table below shows the poor households, the diet that they can afford and the

 

playing materials. Most of the households live in starvation. This has made them be affected

 

by diseases. They also lack playing materials and that means that they will have very poor

 

physical growth. 11 Figure 3 shows the number of the children in the school setup with the environmental

 

challenges and how it affects their performance.

 

Most children in this chart lacks food, apparatus and the status of the family. The

 

environmental factors affect the performance of the learners. Few learners in this chart are

 

best performance. THEORETICAL IMPLICATION

 

Guided by theories of biological sensitivity and differential susceptibility context, the

 

paper has evaluated whether high baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia operates as a

 

susceptibility factor among the infants who are reared in poverty (Rosenberg, Jarus, Bart, &

 

Ratzon, 2011). The children who are reared in poverty are highly affected, and this is curried 12 up to adulthood. On the other hand, those children raised in a relatively middle class have

 

high chances of surviving and interacting relatively within their environment.

 

RECOMMENDATIONS

 

1. The main factors that affect the physical growth of children is died. Insufficient food

 

is lethal to the child. Therefore, parents and teachers should ensure that children are

 

nourished sufficiently at home or school.

 

2. The parents and teachers should ensure that there are enough apparatuses in the

 

environment to enhance play. Play is necessary for the growth and development of the

 

child

 

3. The environment where the child is raised should be free from stress. The people

 

concerned should ensure that there is less stress imposed to the children. Stress affects

 

the mental growth of the child.

 

4. There should be people in the social environment that should motivate the child to

 

develop language. Poor language development will affect the future speech of the

 

child.

 

5. The child should be encouraged constantly by the parent and the teachers to feel a

 

sense of belonging.

 

6. Any form of child abuse should be cruelty dealt with because they affect the normal

 

growth of the child.

 

7. The parents should also embrace family planning because it strains the resource in the

 

family leading to poverty. 13 8. Lastly, the environment where the child is raised should be free from dangerous

 

objects like broken bottles, bees, and any other object which can cause harm to the

 

child.

 

LIMITATIONS and FUTURE

 

Limitations were the shortcomings and difficulties encountered during the process of

 

research writing. The following are the constraints and challenges encountered during

 

research

 

1. During the interview, some of the parents were not willing and free to answer the questions because they thought they were not confidential.

 

2. There was the shortage of resources supply, like reading materials and accessory

 

materials. Money was also a problem, and I had to do some of the things manually. Like

 

writing, commuting from places

 

3. Some school leaders did not give a convincing response as require. Some did not have the time or were not willing to share their views.

 

4. Some parents were not around to give their views because they were held up in different places of work. Some had very tight schedule which could not allow interview. 5. Some homes were closed while others could not allow the interview based on fear. 6. Also, the timing of the research was hectic, and the teachers had the strict schedule. It

 

also affected my schedule which was bound to change. I booked the appointment with most

 

of them but their time was very short and therefore of the intended question were not well

 

exhausted. 14 CONCLUSION

 

It is necessary that children should be well taken care of to ensure proper growth and

 

development in all sectors. Environmental factors like food, status of the family and playing

 

materials should be provided be evaluated well to ensure children grow up in a safe

 

environment. When these factors are not considered, they will affect the future growth of the

 

child. 15 REFERENCES

 

Yin, P., Hou, X., Qin, Q., Deng, W., Hu, H., & Luo, Q. et al. (2016). Genetic and

 

Environmental Influences on the Mental Health of Children: A Twin Study. Journal

 

of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(8), 29-34. Retrieved on

 

12/03/2016 from http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/02793695-20160725-06

 

Hoff, E. (2003). The specificity of environmental influence: Socioeconomic status affects

 

early vocabulary development via maternal speech. Child development, 74(5), 1368-1378. Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child

 

development. Annual review of psychology, 53(1), 371-399. 16 Conradt, E., Measelle, J., & Ablow, J. (2013). Poverty, Problem Behavior, and Promise:

 

Differential Susceptibility Among Infants Reared in Poverty. Psychological Science, 24(3),

 

235-242. Retrieved on 12/01/2016 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797612457381

 

Rosenberg, L., Jarus, T., Bart, O., & Ratzon, N. (2011). Can personal and environmental

 

factors explain dimensions of child participation? Child: Care, Health and Development,

 

37(2), 266-275. Retrieved on 12/02/ 2016 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.13652214.2010.01132.

 

Baranowski, T. (2002). Environmental Influences and What Have We Learned from Dietary

 

Behavior Change with Children? Nutrition Today, 37(4), 171-172. Retrieved on 12/02/2016

 

from http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00017285-200207000-00011

 

Sahn, D. (2012). Health, Poverty and Economic Growth: An Introduction. African

 

Development Review, 24(4), 267-269. Retrieved on 12/01/2016 from

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8268.12009 Health: Poor child growth cements poverty. (2016). Nature, 535(7611), 202-203. Retrieved

 

on 12/03/2016 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/535202e

 

Yoshida, I. & Iwasaki, H. (2014). Physical-motor-play instruction in the kindergarten and

 

cognition of kindergarten teacher to physical-motor-play instruction: Japan

 

Journal of Human Growth and Development Research, 2014(64), 18-24. Retrieved on

 

12/03/2016 from http://dx.doi.org/10.5332/hatsuhatsu.2014.64_18 Csizmadia, A. & Ispa, J. (2013). Black-White Biracial Children's Social Development from

 

Kindergarten to Fifth Grade: Links with Racial Identification, Gender, and Socioeconomic

 

Status. Social Development, 23(1), 157-177. Retrieved on 12/03/2016 from

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sode.12037 17 Serpell, R. & Marfo, K. (2014). Some Growth Points in African Child Development

 

Research. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2014(146), 97-112.

 

Retrieved on 12/03/2016 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cad.20075

 

.

 


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