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I am having difficulty with my final research paper. I have cut out so much that I need a pair of


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I am having difficulty with my final research paper. I have cut out so much that I need a pair of fresh eyes. Any assistance would be greatly appreciated. 


I color coded it for my benefit while working. This is the draft with the color coding. 


Running head: EAP FOR VETERANS 1 Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy for Veterans

 

Melissa R. Amos

 

ENG122: English Composition II

 

Dr. William Carpenter

 

May 10, 2016 EAP FOR VETERANS 2 Although traditional medicine is used to a larger extent in the Western world, EquineAssisted Psychotherapy (EAP) provides hands-on exposure therapy which helps the Veteran

 

make significant progress in treatments, significantly more than the progress which is done

 

through conventional therapies and medication alone. ?There is something about the outside of a

 

horse that is good for the inside of man? is a quote by Winston Churchill. Emotional bonds have

 

been forged with horses, from times past, reaching from Ancient Greece, heroic tales of knights,

 

and cowboys riding into the sunset. Horses have come to represent freedom, spirit, adventure,

 

perseverance and drive (Sheehan, 2014).

 

Interaction with nature and animals helps many people rejuvenate their mind-body

 

connection. Due to the unique characteristics of the personality of a horse, they have the ability

 

to reflect human emotion (Brandt, 2013). The world has evolved into an excessively technical

 

and high demand environment, allowing individuals to separate themselves from authentic

 

experiences and feelings. Horses show a willingness to express emotion, as such, the use of

 

horses in a therapeutic setting, creates an effective medium for people to reconnect with their

 

authentic selves. In contrast, humans have become accustomed to rigidly controlling their

 

emotional expressions, especially within the military and Veteran population, which has

 

developed the incongruence between verbal and nonverbal communication. Unlike cats or dogs,

 

horses are prey animals and must be constantly attuned to their environment to ensure survival.

 

Horses are highly social heard animals, which depend on continuous communication between

 

members for safety, by which requires them to remain present in the moment as well as

 

accurately interpreting their environmental cues (Brandt, 2013). Through interaction and

 

observation between a human and horse, there are opportunities for a therapist to teach and

 

develop social and relational skills for a Veteran. Horses rely heavily on nonverbal EAP FOR VETERANS 3 communication and body language. When a human shows incongruence, horses instinctively

 

react, thereby, reflecting the person?s internal emotional state, regardless of outward expression.

 

The horse provides instant and direct feedback when they become confused and agitated, which

 

is non-judgmental, when the person presents unclear intentions or mixed verbal and non-verbal

 

cues (Brandt, 2013; Kuropatkin, 2013). The lesson that is learned through any equine assisted

 

learning (EAL) allows the therapist to see physical manifestations of any inner conflicts,

 

reflected outwardly by the horse?s ability to read and understand human body language. This

 

provides a learning tool as a pathway to change the ?inside? by changing the ?outside?

 

(Kuropatkin, 2013). The horse will respond exactly as the human body is communicating, and

 

will respond and react differently once the lesson of mindfulness has been learned.

 

EAP may be more readily accepted by those who are resistant to traditional therapeutic

 

interventions because it is held in a non-traditional setting. The stigma associated with receiving

 

treatment at a mental health clinic is removed, as the setting requires the Veteran to meet the

 

horse in its environment, conducting lessons in natural, outdoor settings, which provide more

 

relaxing and safe environment over a traditional office setting. Conducting therapy in a natural

 

and interactive environment alleviates some of the stigma related to attending therapy. Clients

 

often have fewer preconceptions attached to working with horses. This allows the client to

 

connect emotionally with the horse while their initial negative concepts of therapy are reframed

 

into an engaging, interactive, and positive experiences allow for deeper participation in the

 

therapeutic process, which facilitates change within the client (Brandt, 2013; Kelly, 2015).

 

Experiential learning is frequently more active than traditional ?talk therapy?. Mindfulness of the

 

body language of both themselves and the horse, being present in the moment, validation of the

 

non-verbal cues of the horse, all allow the client to gain a better awareness and understanding of EAP FOR VETERANS 4 their own bodies (Brandt, 2013; Kelly, 2015). A unique opportunity to elaborate on this

 

relationship takes place at a horse rescue, Dream Catcher. At this facility, abused and neglected

 

horses are rescued, bringing them to a facility which provides care, shelter, and nurturing. This

 

agency, in partnership with the local Veterans Center, assist Veterans who struggle with PTSD,

 

depression, anxiety, and issues with readjustment to civilian life. When incorporating with

 

treatment by a skilled and qualified mental health professional, equines bring qualities into

 

treatment which enhance this therapeutic modality. Helping rescued horses helps the horse to

 

?rescue? the person through therapy in a reciprocal relationship (Brandt, 2013; Kelly, 2015). The

 

Dream Catcher horse rescue provides this unique opportunity through no cost to those receiving

 

treatment or to taxpayers. Their program is self-funded, charging for boarding, riding lessons and

 

other services (McGhee, 2016).

 

Equine assisted psychotherapy is used along with a variety of therapeutic modalities, with

 

practitioners treating with a wide variety of theoretical practices. It is easily adaptable to

 

individual, group or family therapy sessions, in which the activities are tailored to the unique

 

treatment plans and goals of the client (Brandt, 2013; Mansini, 2010). EAAT programs are

 

diverse and offer concentrations in several different areas of need. All areas encompass specific

 

goals and techniques, which may be appropriate for certain individuals, which require different

 

professional personnel to facilitate. All areas complement and overlap, and the client receives

 

valuable physical and psychological benefits. Regardless of the area of concentration the client,

 

the horse (chosen for size and temperament), volunteers (trained as side walkers and horse

 

leaders), a certified therapeutic riding instructor and a licensed therapist work together as a team

 

to achieve individual goals (Kuropatkin, 2013). Ecopsychology and nature have allowed many

 

Veterans who otherwise would not have sought treatment through conventional means, due to the EAP FOR VETERANS 5 stigma in the military regarding post-traumatic stress, seek an alternative means for therapy.

 

Commonality between Veterans with PTSD and how their experiences through nature allow

 

them to feel as if they have regained their humanity following traumatic military experiences

 

(Westlund, 2015). Accreditation and certification of staff and establishments offering EAP

 

require control measures to establish consistency within future programs (Masini, 2010). Those

 

who have participated in studies report at the end of the session, significantly reduced posttraumatic stress symptoms, less severe emotional responses to trauma, less generalized anxiety,

 

and fewer symptoms of depression. Increased mindfulness strategies and decreased alcohol use

 

were all reported (Earles, Vernon & Yetz 2015). Results of those who participated in a residential

 

equine-assisted therapy program were maintained through a 6-month follow-up.

 

Clients and horses must be carefully evaluated prior to participation in any EAP sessions.

 

It is the responsibility of the therapist to establish if a client is fearful or has a history of animal

 

abuse or arson. This demographic is not an appropriate group for EAP. Those who have a

 

potential medical condition which may be a safety hazard to the client or horse, must notify the

 

therapist.

 

Clients meet with a therapist in a traditional office setting to complete an initial

 

evaluation, establish a treatment plan and goals, and discuss the format for future sessions,

 

discuss with clients their past experiences and comfort level with animals. Brief check-ins prior

 

to and following each session, in addition to an occasional full session within a traditional

 

therapeutic setting. Safety considerations are discussed prior to EAP session and throughout the

 

treatment process. Therapists are also advised to frequently discuss their dual role during equine

 

activities. Protocols regarding safety and physical touch must all be implemented prior to any

 

sessions (Brandt, 2013). PATH has identified that social workers are the demographic which puts EAP FOR VETERANS 6 EAP into practice more than any other group of mental health professionals. PATH has stringent

 

standards to become an approved EAP facility. In these facilities, therapists must play multiple

 

roles, often being directive and firm with clients because of safety rules. They must occasionally

 

step in and act quickly to ensure that the horse and client are safe, including physically removing

 

one or the other from and area, or providing first aid. Credibility within the medical community

 

and general public, if more postsecondary and advanced degree institutions provided education,

 

training and certification (Brandt, 2013). Horses that are used for this modality are both

 

physically and mentally sound. Therapy cannot be effective and will potentially lead to setbacks

 

if the horse is not safe (Brandt, 2013). Each horse which is utilized in EAP must not be

 

overworked, and they must also be provided with ample down time with the heard, which helps

 

to re-cooperate and de-stresses the horse following an EAP session.

 

There are those who would refute the validity of EAP, stating that there are limited

 

continuity through the studies. There have been several research limitations identified, as EAP is

 

a newly studied therapeutic intervention. Equine facilitated and assisted psychotherapies have

 

only started to establish clinical trials and set standard criteria to compare results. Pilot studies

 

had small participation and have been limited to measured anger, depression, quality of life and

 

perceived self-confidence, in addition to mental health, age-related, cognitive-neurological,

 

behavioral, and other health risks and conditions (Selby & Smith-Osborne, 2013). Studies have

 

been initiated by the equine community and have not maintained the consistency within the

 

clinical community to become a valid therapy.

 

Clinical and equine communities have begun to work collaboratively to address the

 

deficit in research, as previous research has been conducted stemming from the equine rather

 

than the academic or clinical mental health communities. This developing therapeutic EAP FOR VETERANS 7 intervention must have more stringent reporting procedures to ensure the growth of this effective

 

technique in conjunction with various clinical populations. Isolating the effects of EAP through

 

multiple clinical diagnosis populations is time consuming and expensive and has yet to occur

 

(Brandt, 2013; Earles, Vernon & Yetz, 2015; Selby & Smith-Osborne, 2013). Future research in

 

equine assisted psychotherapy would greatly benefit from larger sample sizes and randomized

 

controlled trials, as they lacked a control group (Brandt, 2013; Earles, Vernon & Yetz 2015).

 

There are four primary organizations, and numerous minor organizations, which provide training

 

and certifications for equine and mental health professionals who incorporate horses into their

 

practices. EAP is an experiential therapeutic technique that is brief and solution-oriented. The

 

collaborative effort between a licensed therapist and a horse professional working along with the

 

client and horse help to foster emotional growth and healing. Equine assisted psychotherapy

 

sessions are an effective modality for engaging in enjoyable activities while helping them to

 

develop social skills, coping mechanisms, and distress tolerance. Skills that are learned during

 

EAP sessions allow them to transfer skills over to other areas of their lives, fostering long-term

 

change and prevents relapse. Meta-analytic studies indicate that clients suffer from a wide range

 

of mental illnesses report psychological symptoms improve following participation (Brandt,

 

2013). Implementing control measures will respond to those who question the validity and depth

 

of study. Establishing a review board, comprised of members in an academic setting, such as

 

from a University, would ensure continuity within EAP programs. A research assistant, who

 

plays no role in the therapy, must administer all consent forms and questionnaires. A baseline

 

questionnaire must be administered within a few weeks before the first session, and the

 

posttreatment questionnaire must be administered immediately following the final session while

 

participants remain at the facility. A schedule must be established, which includes size of class EAP FOR VETERANS 8 participation (i.e. participants attend a program in three groups, ranging from five to six

 

participants; each attending once a week for six weeks; each session is 2-hours long and

 

conducted by the same Therapist) (Earles, Vernon & Yetz, 2015). All tasks that are completed,

 

must be individual, with the rest of the class mindfully observing and occasionally discussing the

 

process of the task with personal insights each gained (Earles, Vernon & Yetz, 2015).

 

A natural bond occurs between a person and a horse when traditional psychotherapy

 

techniques are combined with equine assisted psychotherapy. This helps to enhance the healing

 

process. The equine-human bond, in conjunction with the client-therapist relationship, allows for

 

the processing of painful emotions and experiences while developing intimacy, identity and

 

partnership. This dual process creates a successful and efficient therapeutic program. Traditional

 

medicine and therapies have been used for decades with Service Members and Veterans returning

 

from war. Alternative medicine has become more mainstream and accepted within the medical

 

community. Conjunctive use of both traditional medicine and alternative ideas, using this form of

 

animal assisted therapy (AAT), have been found to increase adherence to treatment, develop

 

coping resources, social skills and problem solving strategies for those who have special needs.

 

These Equine Assisted Activities and Therapies (EAAT) assist to improve quality of life and help

 

to influence the whole person (Brandt, 2013; Kuropatkin, 2013). Participants with PTSD

 

symptoms, emotional distress, anxiety, depression, and alcohol use significantly decreased

 

following program participation. Mindfulness also increased following treatments (Earles,

 

Vernon & Yetz, 2015). Mutual trust, affection, patience, assertiveness and responsibility are some

 

of the abilities which horses bring out in people. Increased mindfulness, being less burdened by

 

guilt and fear, in addition to becoming more independent and self-supportive are some of the

 

many attributes which benefit Veterans report as a side effect of completing EAP. This broadens EAP FOR VETERANS 9 the narrow use of cognitive-behavioral therapies, here-and-now therapies, and limited stages of

 

personality development to a more complete psychotherapeutic experience and involvement?

 

(Brandt, 2013). EAP FOR VETERANS 10

 

References Anestis, M. D., Anestis, J. C., Zawilinski, L. L., Hopkins, T. A., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2014).

 

Equine-Related Treatments For Mental Disorders Lack Empirical Support: A Systematic

 

Review of Empirical Investigations. Journal Of Clinical Psychology, 70(12), 1115.

 

doi:10.1002/jclp.22113

 

Brandt, C. (2013). Equine-Facilitated Psychotherapy as a Complementary Treatment

 

Intervention. Practitioner Scholar: Journal Of Counseling & Professional

 

Psychology, 2(1), 23.

 

Boatwright, A. (2013). The Outside of a Horse. Horse & Rider, 52(4), 74-83

 

Earles, J. L., Vernon, L. L., & Yetz, J. P. (2015). Equine-Assisted Therapy for Anxiety and

 

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms. Journal of Traumatic Stress. doi:10.1002/jts.21990

 

Kelly, S. (2015). A Second-Chance for Horses. Countryside & Small Stock Journal, 99(4),68-69

 

Kuropatkin, L. (2013). The Benefits of Equine Assisted Activities and Therapies. Exceptional

 

Parent, 43(3), 32-34 3p

 

Lanning, B. A., & Krenek, N. (2013). Examining effects of equine-assisted activities to help

 

combat veterans improve quality of life. Journal Of Rehabilitation Research &

 

Development, 50(8), vii-xiii 7p. doi:10.1682/JRRD.2013.07.0159

 

MacLean, B. (2011). Guest Editorial. Equine-assisted therapy. Journal Of Rehabilitation

 

Research & Development, 48(7), ix-xii 4p. doi:10.1682/JRRD.2011.05.0085

 

Masini, A. (2010). Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy in Clinical Practice. Journal Of Psychosocial

 

Nursing & Mental Health Services, 48(10), 30. doi:10.3928/02793695-20100831-08

 

McGhee, Tom - The Denver, P. (2016). Horse therapy helps veterans, soldiers. AP Regional State

 

Report - Montana, McClatchy Tribune Collection. EAP FOR VETERANS 11 Notgrass, C. G., & Pettinelli, J. D. (2015). Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted

 

Growth and Learning Association?s Model Overview of Equine-Based

 

Modalities. Journal Of Experiential Education, 38(2), 162.

 

doi:10.1177/1053825914528472

 

O?Brien, B. (2014). Impacts & Innovations. Nonprofit Charity Impacts Wounded Combat

 

Veterans And Children Facing Adversity. Nursing Economic$, 32(5), 270-274 5p

 

Selby, A., & Smith-Osborne, A. (2013). A systematic review of effectiveness of complementary

 

and adjunct therapies and interventions involving equines. Health Psychology, 32(4),

 

418-432. doi:10.1037/a0029188

 

Sheehan, E. M. (2014). Equine-Assisted Therapies in Rehabilitation: an overview. Journal Of

 

Nurse Life Care Planning, 14(2), 603-607 5p

 

Westlund, S. (2015). `Becoming human again': Exploring connections between nature and

 

recovery from stress and post-traumatic distress. Work, 50(1), 161-174 14p.

 

doi:10.3233/WOR-141934 . . EAP FOR VETERANS

 

Intro & Thesis

 

Idea 1

 

Idea 2

 

Idea 3

 

Negative 1

 

Refute 1

 

Negative 2

 

Refute 2

 

Conclusion 12

 


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I am having difficulty with my final research paper. I have cut out so much that I need a pair of.zip

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