Question Details

[solution] »

I need someone to review and edit my final paper for my psychology class on an experiment that I


Description

Answer Download


The Question

I need someone to review and edit my final paper for my psychology class on an experiment that I have conducted. I have gotten feedback that I need help with grammatical errors and APA formatting with my in-text citations.


Running head: Decreasing Binge Drinking Decreasing the Frequency of College Binge Drinking Using a Self-Management Plan

 

Rahma Keene

 

011386565

 

Washington State University Running head: Decreasing Binge Drinking

 

Abstract

 

My target behavior is decreasing my college binge drinking habits; this behavior

 

is a behavioral excess. This behavior is a problem because it affects my ability to preform

 

my daily tasks due to hangovers and makes the skin on my face break out. Using a selfmanagement plan and a token economy I hypothesis I will be able to successfully

 

decrease my behavior from going out from four nights a week to three nights a week by

 

the end of the treatment phase. My hypothesis was reinforced and I was able to reach my

 

goal of decreasing my binge drinking behavior at the end of the treatment phase (M=3).

 

Over the course of the treatment phase I saw a negative correlation, as the weeks

 

increased my behavioral excess decreased. By the end of my study I reached my goal and

 

was able to complete my day-to-day tasks while seeing my skin slowly clear up from

 

blemishes.

 

Introduction

 

Self Control is defined as the ability to control our desires, our emotions or the

 

expression of them in ones behavior. Self-control is important because it is what helps

 

you make the right decisions throughout life (Nelson 2016). Having a high level of selfcontrol will allow you to make the right decisions even if these are not the easiest

 

choices. (Miltenberger 1997). Behavior change is the process of decreasing unwanted

 

behavior or increasing wanted behavior through intervention to achieve target behavior.

 

To change these behaviors we start by using goal setting, which is the process of deciding

 

what behavior you want to change, then by utilizing an intervention plan, we will attempt

 

to achieve the desired result (Tuk 2015). There are two types of mindset, fixed and

 

growth, fixed relates to the idea we were born with certain talents and that?s that but Running head: Decreasing Binge Drinking

 

growth relates to the idea that we can be good at anything if we try (Muraven 2010).

 

Behavioral dimensions are measurable descriptive characteristics that communicate

 

particular aspects of performance for example: frequency, rate, duration and intensity. To

 

track such things we use antecedents and consequences. Antecedents are the event,

 

circumstances and/or stimuli in an environment that takes place immediately before a

 

behavior occurs. A consequence is the contingencies that immediately follow a behavior

 

that decrease the occurrence of the behavior; we use positive/negative rewards and

 

punishments. A positive reward is the addition of an encouragement for behavior to occur

 

again. A negative reward is something that creates a person to stop or avoid their behavior

 

due to the negative outcome it creates. A positive punishment is the presentation of an

 

unfavorable outcome following an undesirable behavior; while a negative punishment is

 

taking away a desired item after the undesirable behavior happens to decrease future

 

responses. Schedules of reinforcement are important because they are a tactic used in

 

operant conditioning that influences how an operant response is learned and maintained.

 

Schedules of reinforcement use token economies, a system of contingency management

 

based on the systematic reinforcement of target behavior, the reinforcers are the ?tokens?.

 

Using a token economy, we use response costs by withdrawing a specified amount of

 

reinforcer immediately after the production of a challenging behavior (Reppucci 1974).

 

Using the intervention program with the key concepts of schedules of reinforcement,

 

token economies, etc. I have decided to decrease my behavior excess of binge drinking

 

while in college. My goal in this behavior change is to limit the amount of nights I go out

 

during the week. I have operationally defined my binge drinking as not going out to the

 

fraternities or local bars (Mikes, Valhalla, and The Coug) more than 3 nights total in one Running head: Decreasing Binge Drinking

 

week. If my behavior is changed I will be more able to preform my daily tasks due to the

 

decrease in hangovers and I will overall feel better during my day-to-day activities. I

 

hypothesis that I will successfully decrease my binge drinking behavior to no more than 3

 

nights of drinking in a week and I will do this by tracking my behavior and using a token

 

economy system.

 

Method

 

Participant

 

I, Rahma Keene, am the only participant within this study of decreasing college

 

binge drinking habits. I am a 21 year-old Caucasian female student in a sorority at

 

Washington State University.

 

Materials

 

I used an ABC chart that first tracked my baseline behavior and then after

 

recorded a 3-week treatment phase chart to keep track of my behavior accordingly. I

 

recorded my behavior each day with a tally mark recording whether my target behavior

 

or my behavior excess occurred. By doing this, it will be easier to see my day-to-day

 

progress and at the end of the week I will have a better idea of how to maintain or change

 

my behavior to stay on track of my target behavior. The ABC chart will be kept in my

 

room on the desk I get ready at every morning so I will 100% see it and sufficiently track

 

my behavior pattern and ABC observations from the night before.

 

Along with the ABC chart, other materials used were: a self-management plan

 

that included a token economy. My self-management plan includes tracking my behavior

 

to make sure I am reminded to stay on track with my target behavior. Using a token

 

economy system means that I will reward myself with one quarter in a mason jar on my Running head: Decreasing Binge Drinking

 

desk for every night I exercise my target behavior. However, if I participate in my

 

behavioral excess then a quarter will be removed from the jar. This will give me a visual

 

of how well I am doing or how much I am struggling to achieve my desired behavior.

 

This jar will sit beside my ABC chart on my desk so I will see it every morning and can

 

remove or place a quarter in the jar as soon as I am done making my observations from

 

the previous nights behavior.

 

Procedure

 

My baseline phase consisted of a one-week period where my behavior was not to

 

be manipulated in any way. During this time I recorded my usual day-to-day behavioral

 

patterns to see how much I could really improve during the treatment phase. This would

 

also give me a better understanding of how my behavior changed once the selfmanagement plan and token economy were presented into my life.

 

After my baseline was identified, I started my three-week treatment phase. After

 

each week I would identify the number of tokens I ended with depending on my behavior

 

throughout the week. By doing this, I was able to see whether I was making progress

 

toward my desired target behavior depending on the visual representation of quarters in a

 

mason jar on my desk and the detailed results I recorded on my ABC chart. My backup

 

reinforcer is getting a professional facial if I am able to end my treatment phase with 3

 

quarters in my mason jar. I will have a response cost of taking away a quarter for every

 

night I do go out drinking, this will decrease the likelihood of receiving my backup

 

reinforcer reward.

 

Results Running head: Decreasing Binge Drinking

 

Before I began my baseline and treatment phases, part of my self-management

 

plan was to predict how I thought the study would increase/decrease/have no effect on

 

my behavior. I predicted that the study would influence my behavior by decreasing my

 

behavioral excess. After completing my study I can conclude that the study did in fact

 

help me decrease my behavioral excess. There was a negative trend between the weeks

 

and my behavior, as the weeks increased my behavior decreased, which reinforces my

 

hypothesis. The results of this trend can be seen in Appendix A Figure 1.

 

During the baseline phase the mean number of nights I went out drinking was

 

(M=2). My baseline phase was somewhat inaccurate of my binge drinking behavior

 

because I was somewhat sick and breaking out that week I did not feel able to go out

 

drinking as much as I usually would. My first week of the treatment phase was a more

 

accurate description of my drinking behavior; I had a mean number of nights drinking of

 

(M=4). Throughout my treatment phase, my total mean number of nights drinking a week

 

was (M=3). Having a mean number of three nights of drinking was a successful result

 

since my hope was to not go out more than three nights during a week. My hope was to

 

decrease my behavior to two nights of drinking a week which by looking at Appendix A

 

Figure 2 you can see I accomplished by week three of the treatment phase.

 

When looking at the tokens received during the treatment phase you can see as

 

weeks go on, I received more tokens. My first week during my treatment phase I had lost

 

one token (-1 token) because I exceeded my three-night limit and drank four out of the

 

seven nights that week. The second week of my treatment phase I was able to decrease

 

my behavioral excess back to three nights within a week, which allowed me to earn one

 

token total for the week. By the last week of my treatment phase I was finally able to Running head: Decreasing Binge Drinking

 

decrease my behavioral excess to only two nights a week where I was able to earn three

 

tokens for the week. These results can also been seen within Appendix A Figure 2. By the

 

end of my study I was able to exchange my goal of three tokens for my back up

 

reinforcer of a professional facial. I believe the visual of tokens did help encourage me to

 

successfully decrease my behavioral excess.

 

Discussion

 

When completing this study the main findings of the study was the results of the

 

self-management plans effect on my behavioral excess. The first step I took in this study

 

was making a hypothesis on what impact the self-management plan would have on my

 

binge drinking behavior. My prediction was that I would be able to decrease my

 

behavioral excess to successfully accomplish my target behavior. The results of my study

 

showed that I was in fact able to reach my target behavior by the end of my treatment

 

phase by using my self-management plan. Using a token economy in my experience

 

really helped me accomplish my goals due to the fact I would see the jar every morning

 

and the amount of quarters each day going up or down encouraged me to focus on my

 

target behavior. By the end of the study I was able to cash my tokens in for a professional

 

facial, which was a great reward seeing as my skin was clearing up from drinking less

 

and after the facial made that even more apparent.

 

Like all studies there were not only strengths but also weakness to this study.

 

Some of the strengths within this study were the token economy, the physical reward and

 

the ABC chart. The token economy itself is a great reward/punishment system. By having

 

a token taken away it encouraged me more to control my behavior so I could replace the

 

lost token. If I allowed myself to vary from my target behavior then I was immediately Running head: Decreasing Binge Drinking

 

able to see the consequences every morning, on my desk, right in front of me. The

 

physical reward of not drinking was allowing my face to clear of blemishes. By not going

 

out drinking I could see my face slowly clearing. I was no longer falling asleep without

 

taking my make up off and the effects of the alcohol on my body were not seen through

 

my skin. I also was able to work out more due to the fact I was not as hung-over as I

 

usually was. The ABC chart was also a strength of this study because having the chart on

 

my desk every morning to remind me to fill out my behaviors so I would have an

 

accurate description of my observations to better understand my results. All of these

 

strengths helped keep me accountable for my actions and stay on track for my target

 

behavior.

 

There were however some weakness to my study. One of the weakness I

 

encountered with this study was that my baseline was a poor representation of my normal

 

behavior due to me being sick that week along with my face breaking out so I avoided

 

going out drinking. This somewhat affected my data by not giving 100% accurate data to

 

compare my treatment phase results to. Another weakness of this study was lack of time.

 

Having there only be a one-week base line period effected me being able to give an

 

accurate representation of my drinking patterns due to the circumstances of that

 

individual week. Also only having a three-week treatment phase showed my

 

improvements but did not allow me to maintain my improvements.

 

For future studies I would add another week to the baseline and add two weeks to

 

the treatment phase to give accurate results of someone?s starting behavior and how it

 

changes and is maintained through the treatment phase. Having the treatment phase end

 

so soon I am concerned at maintaining my progress. To make future studies more intense Running head: Decreasing Binge Drinking

 

the addition of limiting the number of drinks within a night could possibly be added. The

 

other aspects of my study seemed to do well considering I was able to decrease my

 

behavioral excess using the materials above. In conclusion, I was able to decrease my

 

behavioral excess which was the defining factor of if the study was successful or not and

 

my hypothesis was supported by the data I achieved. Running head: Decreasing Binge Drinking

 

References

 

Miltenberger, R. G. (1997). Behavior modification: Principles and procedures. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Pub.

 

Muraven, M. (2010). Building self­control strength: Practicing self­control leads to improved self­control performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(2), 465­468. Retrieved from http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2098/docview/622130526?accountid=14902

 

Nelson, L. J. (2016, August 28). What is Self­Control. Lecture presented in Washington, Pullman.

 

Reppucci, N. D., & Saunders, J. T. (1974). Social psychology of behavior modification: Problems of implementation in natural settings. American Psychologist, 29(9), 649­660. Retrieved from http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2098/docview/616125507?accountid=14902

 

Tuk, M. A., Zhang, K., & Sweldens, S. (2015). The propagation of self­control: Self­

 

control in one domain simultaneously improves self­control in other domains. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144(3), 639­654. Retrieved from http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2098/docview/1668009685?accountid=14902 Running head: Decreasing Binge Drinking Appendix

 

Appendix A Figure 1 Drinking Behavior Habits

 

1.2 1 0.8 Nights went out drinking 0.6 Series 2 0.4 0.2 0 Day # Running head: Decreasing Binge Drinking Appendix A Figure 2

 

Day/Date

 

Monday 10/17

 

Tuesday 10/18 Frequency of

 

going out

 

drinking Frequency of

 

not going out

 

drinking

 

l l Wednesday

 

10/19 l Tokens

 

earned/lost

 

Earned 1 token

 

Lost 1 token Earned 1 token Thursday

 

10/20 l Lost 1 token Friday 10/21 l Lost 1 token Saturday 10/22 l Lost 1 token Sunday 10/23 l Earned 1 token Net tokens earned for week 1: -1 token Monday 10/24 Earned 1 token Tuesday 10/25 l

 

l Wednesday

 

10/26

 

Thursday

 

10/27

 

Friday 10/28

 

Saturday 10/29

 

Sunday 10/30 Lost 1 token

 

l Earned 1 token 1 Earned 1 token l Lost 1 token

 

Lost 1 token

 

Earned 1 token l

 

l Net tokens Earned for Week 2: 1 token Monday 10/31 Earned 1 token l Notes It was stubby

 

Tuesday and

 

my friends

 

convinced me

 

Had to study for

 

my accounting

 

test

 

Celebrated

 

being done with

 

my accounting

 

test

 

Celebrating

 

being done with

 

my long week

 

My BFF?s 21st

 

birthday

 

Went to the

 

library

 

Not good, need

 

to do better!

 

Had a severe

 

migraine

 

Had to take my

 

friend to her 1st

 

Stubby Tuesday

 

Took off my

 

make up and

 

got into bed

 

Halloween

 

Halloween

 

Good, but could

 

do better! Running head: Decreasing Binge Drinking

 

Tuesday 11/1 l Earned 1 token Wednesday

 

11/2 l Earned 1 token Thursday 11/3 l Earned 1 token Friday 11/4 l Lost 1 token Saturday 11/5 1 Lost 1 token Sunday 11/6 l Net tokens Earned for Week 3: Working on

 

Psych +

 

accounting hw

 

in library

 

Worked on

 

Psych +

 

Accounting hw

 

in library

 

Worked on

 

Psych +

 

Accounting hw

 

in library

 

Dad?s

 

weekend!!!

 

Dad?s

 

weekend!! Earned 1 token 3 tokens Yay I did it!!

 


Solution details

Solution #000176074

[solution] »

I need someone to review and edit my final paper for my psychology class on an experiment that I .zip

Uploaded by: Tutor

Answer rating:

This paper was answered on 14-Oct-2020

Pay using PayPal (No PayPal account Required) or your credit card . All your purchases are securely protected by .

About this Question

STATUS

Answered

QUALITY

Approved

DATE ANSWERED

Oct 14, 2020

EXPERT

Tutor

ANSWER RATING

BEST TUTORS

We have top-notch tutors who can do your essay/homework for you at a reasonable cost and then you can simply use that essay as a template to build your own arguments.

You can also use these solutions:

  • As a reference for in-depth understanding of the subject.
  • As a source of ideas / reasoning for your own research (if properly referenced)
  • For editing and paraphrasing (check your institution's definition of plagiarism and recommended paraphrase).
This we believe is a better way of understanding a problem and makes use of the efficiency of time of the student.

STUCK WITH YOUR PAPER?

Order New Solution. Quick Turnaround

Click on the button below in order to Order for a New, Original and High-Quality Essay Solutions. New orders are original solutions and precise to your writing instruction requirements. Place a New Order using the button below.

WE GUARANTEE, THAT YOUR PAPER WILL BE WRITTEN FROM SCRATCH AND WITHIN A DEADLINE.

Order Now