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Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The

 

Effects on Crime Community Oriented Policing: The Effects on Crime NAME

 

American Public University System

 

2016 1 Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The

 

Effects on Crime 2 Abstract

 

The primary motivation behind the this proposed research proposal study is to determine,

 

whether or not, community oriented policing has any effect, positive or negative, on crime or the

 

fear of crime. Through the use of quantitative research and meta-analysis, we attempt to discover

 

if community policing reduces crime and criminal behavior. In order to gain the most current

 

information, a wide range of sources will be used to gather the required information to conduct

 

the research. Police databases, journals, as well as, internetInternet sites will be used in the study.

 

The greatest limiting factor, of this research endeavor, is the lack of research and theory

 

development within community policing. Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The

 

Effects on Crime 3 Introduction

 

Community-oriented policing is a philosophy of policing that emphasizes community

 

involvement in crime prevention efforts, in contrast to the focus of traditional policing on law

 

enforcement and order maintenance (Gill, Weisburd, Telep, Vitter, & Bennett, 2014). Police

 

departments throughout the United States and around the world, have implemented community

 

policing programs in an effort to reduce crime and become more involved in their local

 

communities. In a 1997 Police Foundation survey, all police departments in the U.S. with

 

populations greater than 100,000 who responded reported that they had adopted COP, with 85%

 

of the total sample claiming that they had adopted or planned to adopt it (Skogan, 2004). Such

 

policing efforts, have been touted by community leaders and police officials as being an effective

 

tool against crime and disorder. However, research conducted in the Journal of Experimental

 

Criminology suggest that community policing strategies have positive effects on citizen

 

satisfaction, perceptions of disorder, and police legitimacy, but limited effects on crime and fear

 

of crime (Gill, Weisburd, Telep, Vitter, & Bennett, 2014). Police operating strategies are

 

constantly evolving during the 21st century. Through trial and error, police administrators retain

 

policies that work and discard those that are not working for the community or department. The

 

key to the police staying on the forefront of crime prevention is to be willing to try new policing

 

strategies. If police leadership is afraid of experimenting with new strategies, then innovation

 

and creativity will be stifled. Problem oriented policing concentrates on solving problems, rather

 

than solely responding to complaints, it offers agencies an opportunity to apply the technique to

 

problems that exist within their organizations, as well as those occurring in their communities

 

(Eisenberg & Glasscock, 2001). One of the drawbacks to problem oriented policing is that it

 

takes too much time for busy patrol officers to problem solve each situation when they are Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The

 

Effects on Crime 4 expected to respond to calls for service at a moment?s notice. The broken windows theory tries to

 

have the police crackdown on the existence of physical disorder such as decaying buildings,

 

panhandling, loitering, and public intoxication. The broken window theory believes that if you

 

do not take care of the smaller problems, bigger more serious crimes will come in and make it

 

worst. Policing in accordance with the broken windows thesis emphasizes the use of aggressive,

 

proactive tactics by patrol officers in an effort to insulate communities from serious crime

 

(Fritsch, Liederbach, & Taylor, 2008).

 

Hypothesis/Problem Statement/Purpose Statement

 

Even though community policing increases citizen satisfaction with the police, evidence

 

does not show it has any direct effect on crime or the fear of crime. Problem Statement

 

Although there have been numerous studies conducted on community policing methods,

 

not much scholarly research has been conducted on the effectiveness of community policing as it

 

relates to the reduction of crime and the fear of crime.

 

Purpose Statement

 

Thus, the purpose of this study is to describe the effects of community oriented policing

 

strategies and its effects on crime. Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The

 

Effects on Crime 5 Literature Review

 

Maintaining a good relationship with the community is a great way to build trust with

 

members of that community. If the local departments do not have a good working relationships

 

with the members in the community, in which they serve and protect, the job of policing is more

 

difficult and often times they will view the police as the enemy. However, the police and the

 

community must find ways to use community policing efforts to reduce crime and criminal

 

behavior. Stone and Travis (2013) suggest that COP has lost some of its momentum because

 

some police departments felt unsure of what too ask of communities and felt the

 

?transformative? power of the program did not live up to expectations. The authors Weisburd,

 

Hinkle, Braga and Wooditch (2015) use narrative review and meta-analytic methods to determine

 

the effectiveness of the broken window theory as it relates to crime and disorder. They found that

 

disorder policing initiatives do not have any notable impact on crime or the fear of crime. The

 

author?s use of scholarly research determined, when the police reduce social disorder, the

 

citizens? fear of crime is reduced as well (Weisburd, Hinkle, Braga, & Wooditch, 2015). Also,

 

when the community takes responsibility for the crime within their community, crime rates

 

decline. In the article Spatial Analysis of Fear of Crime and Police Calls for Service, the authors

 

Conley and Stein (2014) examined the relationship of reactive policing strategies versus

 

proactive policing strategies. Their findings illustrated that when members of the community

 

have a high fear of crime they are more likely to report criminal activity to the police (Conley &

 

Stein, 2014). Finally, in the article written by Graziano, Rosenbaum and Schuck (2014), they

 

conducted a random control trial to examine weather providing feedback from community

 

surveys on community policing programs would improve police and community relationships.

 

The research did not show any significant improvements or reduction in crime or the fear of Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The

 

Effects on Crime 6 crime. In conclusion community policing is a good start to bridging the gap between the police

 

and the community It however, is not the perfect solution to the crime problem. More research

 

into community policing and its effects on crime needs to be conducted. Researchers can build

 

on previous research conducted to find new ways for the police, as well as, the community to

 

reduce crime and the fear of crime.

 

References Conley, J., & Stein, R. (2014). Spatial Analysis analysis of Fear fear of Crime crime and Police

 

police Calls calls for Serviceservice: An Example example and Implications implications

 

for Community community Policingpolicing. In Forensic GIS (pp. 155-172). Springer

 

Netherlands.

 

Cordner, G. (2014). Community policing. The Oxford handbook Handbook of police Police and

 

policingPolicing, 148-171.

 

Eisenberg, T., & Glasscock, B. (2001). Looking inward with problem-oriented policing. FBI

 

Law Enforcement Bulletin, 70(7), 1-5. Retrieved from

 

http://search.proquest.com/docview/204127954?accountid=8289

 

Fritsch, E.J., Liederbach, J., &Taylor, R.W. (2008). Police patrol allocation and deployment.

 

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

 

Gill, C., Weisburd, D., Telep, C. W., Vitter, Z., & Bennett, T. (2014). Community-oriented

 

policing to reduce crime, disorder and fear and increase satisfaction and legitimacy

 

among citizens: a systematic review. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 10(4), 399428 Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The

 

Effects on Crime 7 Graziano, L. M., Rosenbaum, D. P., & Schuck, A. M. (2014). Building group capacity for

 

problem solving and police?community partnerships through survey feedback and

 

training: a randomized control trial within Chicago?s community policing program.

 

Journal of Experimental Criminology, 10(1), 79-103.

 

Skogan, W. G. (2004). Community policing: Common impediments to success. Community

 

policingPolicing: The pastPast, presentPresent, and futureFuture, 159-167.

 

Stone, C., & Travis, J. (2013). Toward a new professionalism in policing. JIJIS, 13, 11.

 

Weisburd, D., Hinkle, J. C., Braga, A. A., & Wooditch, A. (2015). Understanding the

 

Mechanisms mechanisms Underlying underlying Broken broken Windows windows

 

Policing policing The the Need need for Evaluation evaluation Evidenceevidence.

 

Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 52(4), 589-608

 

Boostrom, R. (n.d.). The Communitycommunity-Oriented oriented Policing policing and

 

Problem problem Solving solving Paradigmparadigm- What Have have We we

 

Learnedlearned? Retrieved from oregonstateOregon State:

 

http://oregonstate.edu/dept/iifet/2000/papers/boostrom.pdf Dr. Wallace Comments: CJ, you have selected an interesting topic for your research study

 

proposal. However, as you will note from my edits and feedback comments in the margins you

 

still have some work to do in order to get this where it needs to be for the final version.

 

Additionally, you left out two sections; (1) Definitions and (2) Research Methods/Design. The

 

Research Methods/Design was especially important to include so that I could give you feedback

 

on whether or not you had sufficient information in that section. Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The

 

Effects on Crime

 

You will be expected to make all of my suggested changes in the final version. Please let me

 

know if you have any questions. The grading rubric below was used to compute your score for

 

this assignment.

 

Grade for Week 5 Assignment: 65

 

Category

 

Quality of Response

 

Use of Sources

 

Writing Level Score Satisfactory

 

Good

 

Excellent

 

Total Score 30

 

15

 

20

 

65 8

 


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Please make all of the recommended changes to the attached document. All of the changes should be.zip

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