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Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The
Effects on Crime Community Oriented Policing: The Effects on Crime NAME
American Public University System
2016 1 Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The
Effects on Crime 2 Abstract
The primary motivation behind the this proposed research proposal study is to determine,
whether or not, community oriented policing has any effect, positive or negative, on crime or the
fear of crime. Through the use of quantitative research and meta-analysis, we attempt to discover
if community policing reduces crime and criminal behavior. In order to gain the most current
information, a wide range of sources will be used to gather the required information to conduct
the research. Police databases, journals, as well as, internetInternet sites will be used in the study.
The greatest limiting factor, of this research endeavor, is the lack of research and theory
development within community policing. Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The
Effects on Crime 3 Introduction
Community-oriented policing is a philosophy of policing that emphasizes community
involvement in crime prevention efforts, in contrast to the focus of traditional policing on law
enforcement and order maintenance (Gill, Weisburd, Telep, Vitter, & Bennett, 2014). Police
departments throughout the United States and around the world, have implemented community
policing programs in an effort to reduce crime and become more involved in their local
communities. In a 1997 Police Foundation survey, all police departments in the U.S. with
populations greater than 100,000 who responded reported that they had adopted COP, with 85%
of the total sample claiming that they had adopted or planned to adopt it (Skogan, 2004). Such
policing efforts, have been touted by community leaders and police officials as being an effective
tool against crime and disorder. However, research conducted in the Journal of Experimental
Criminology suggest that community policing strategies have positive effects on citizen
satisfaction, perceptions of disorder, and police legitimacy, but limited effects on crime and fear
of crime (Gill, Weisburd, Telep, Vitter, & Bennett, 2014). Police operating strategies are
constantly evolving during the 21st century. Through trial and error, police administrators retain
policies that work and discard those that are not working for the community or department. The
key to the police staying on the forefront of crime prevention is to be willing to try new policing
strategies. If police leadership is afraid of experimenting with new strategies, then innovation
and creativity will be stifled. Problem oriented policing concentrates on solving problems, rather
than solely responding to complaints, it offers agencies an opportunity to apply the technique to
problems that exist within their organizations, as well as those occurring in their communities
(Eisenberg & Glasscock, 2001). One of the drawbacks to problem oriented policing is that it
takes too much time for busy patrol officers to problem solve each situation when they are Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The
Effects on Crime 4 expected to respond to calls for service at a moment?s notice. The broken windows theory tries to
have the police crackdown on the existence of physical disorder such as decaying buildings,
panhandling, loitering, and public intoxication. The broken window theory believes that if you
do not take care of the smaller problems, bigger more serious crimes will come in and make it
worst. Policing in accordance with the broken windows thesis emphasizes the use of aggressive,
proactive tactics by patrol officers in an effort to insulate communities from serious crime
(Fritsch, Liederbach, & Taylor, 2008).
Hypothesis/Problem Statement/Purpose Statement
Even though community policing increases citizen satisfaction with the police, evidence
does not show it has any direct effect on crime or the fear of crime. Problem Statement
Although there have been numerous studies conducted on community policing methods,
not much scholarly research has been conducted on the effectiveness of community policing as it
relates to the reduction of crime and the fear of crime.
Thus, the purpose of this study is to describe the effects of community oriented policing
strategies and its effects on crime. Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The
Effects on Crime 5 Literature Review
Maintaining a good relationship with the community is a great way to build trust with
members of that community. If the local departments do not have a good working relationships
with the members in the community, in which they serve and protect, the job of policing is more
difficult and often times they will view the police as the enemy. However, the police and the
community must find ways to use community policing efforts to reduce crime and criminal
behavior. Stone and Travis (2013) suggest that COP has lost some of its momentum because
some police departments felt unsure of what too ask of communities and felt the
?transformative? power of the program did not live up to expectations. The authors Weisburd,
Hinkle, Braga and Wooditch (2015) use narrative review and meta-analytic methods to determine
the effectiveness of the broken window theory as it relates to crime and disorder. They found that
disorder policing initiatives do not have any notable impact on crime or the fear of crime. The
author?s use of scholarly research determined, when the police reduce social disorder, the
citizens? fear of crime is reduced as well (Weisburd, Hinkle, Braga, & Wooditch, 2015). Also,
when the community takes responsibility for the crime within their community, crime rates
decline. In the article Spatial Analysis of Fear of Crime and Police Calls for Service, the authors
Conley and Stein (2014) examined the relationship of reactive policing strategies versus
proactive policing strategies. Their findings illustrated that when members of the community
have a high fear of crime they are more likely to report criminal activity to the police (Conley &
Stein, 2014). Finally, in the article written by Graziano, Rosenbaum and Schuck (2014), they
conducted a random control trial to examine weather providing feedback from community
surveys on community policing programs would improve police and community relationships.
The research did not show any significant improvements or reduction in crime or the fear of Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The
Effects on Crime 6 crime. In conclusion community policing is a good start to bridging the gap between the police
and the community It however, is not the perfect solution to the crime problem. More research
into community policing and its effects on crime needs to be conducted. Researchers can build
on previous research conducted to find new ways for the police, as well as, the community to
reduce crime and the fear of crime.
References Conley, J., & Stein, R. (2014). Spatial Analysis analysis of Fear fear of Crime crime and Police
police Calls calls for Serviceservice: An Example example and Implications implications
for Community community Policingpolicing. In Forensic GIS (pp. 155-172). Springer
Cordner, G. (2014). Community policing. The Oxford handbook Handbook of police Police and
Eisenberg, T., & Glasscock, B. (2001). Looking inward with problem-oriented policing. FBI
Law Enforcement Bulletin, 70(7), 1-5. Retrieved from
Fritsch, E.J., Liederbach, J., &Taylor, R.W. (2008). Police patrol allocation and deployment.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Gill, C., Weisburd, D., Telep, C. W., Vitter, Z., & Bennett, T. (2014). Community-oriented
policing to reduce crime, disorder and fear and increase satisfaction and legitimacy
among citizens: a systematic review. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 10(4), 399428 Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The
Effects on Crime 7 Graziano, L. M., Rosenbaum, D. P., & Schuck, A. M. (2014). Building group capacity for
problem solving and police?community partnerships through survey feedback and
training: a randomized control trial within Chicago?s community policing program.
Journal of Experimental Criminology, 10(1), 79-103.
Skogan, W. G. (2004). Community policing: Common impediments to success. Community
policingPolicing: The pastPast, presentPresent, and futureFuture, 159-167.
Stone, C., & Travis, J. (2013). Toward a new professionalism in policing. JIJIS, 13, 11.
Weisburd, D., Hinkle, J. C., Braga, A. A., & Wooditch, A. (2015). Understanding the
Mechanisms mechanisms Underlying underlying Broken broken Windows windows
Policing policing The the Need need for Evaluation evaluation Evidenceevidence.
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 52(4), 589-608
Boostrom, R. (n.d.). The Communitycommunity-Oriented oriented Policing policing and
Problem problem Solving solving Paradigmparadigm- What Have have We we
Learnedlearned? Retrieved from oregonstateOregon State:
http://oregonstate.edu/dept/iifet/2000/papers/boostrom.pdf Dr. Wallace Comments: CJ, you have selected an interesting topic for your research study
proposal. However, as you will note from my edits and feedback comments in the margins you
still have some work to do in order to get this where it needs to be for the final version.
Additionally, you left out two sections; (1) Definitions and (2) Research Methods/Design. The
Research Methods/Design was especially important to include so that I could give you feedback
on whether or not you had sufficient information in that section. Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The
Effects on Crime
You will be expected to make all of my suggested changes in the final version. Please let me
know if you have any questions. The grading rubric below was used to compute your score for
Grade for Week 5 Assignment: 65
Quality of Response
Use of Sources
Writing Level Score Satisfactory
Total Score 30
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