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Make all the suggested changes to the document. Do not plagiarize and remember to use APA citations. Need a fast turn around. Thanks.

Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The


Effects on Crime Community Oriented Policing: The Effects on Crime NAME


American Public University System


2016 1 Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The


Effects on Crime 2 Abstract


The primary motivation behind the this proposed research proposal study is to determine,


whether or not, community oriented policing has any effect, positive or negative, on crime or the


fear of crime. Through the use of quantitative research and meta-analysis, we attempt to discover


if community policing reduces crime and criminal behavior. In order to gain the most current


information, a wide range of sources will be used to gather the required information to conduct


the research. Police databases, journals, as well as, internetInternet sites will be used in the study.


The greatest limiting factor, of this research endeavor, is the lack of research and theory


development within community policing. Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The


Effects on Crime 3 Introduction


Community-oriented policing is a philosophy of policing that emphasizes community


involvement in crime prevention efforts, in contrast to the focus of traditional policing on law


enforcement and order maintenance (Gill, Weisburd, Telep, Vitter, & Bennett, 2014). Police


departments throughout the United States and around the world, have implemented community


policing programs in an effort to reduce crime and become more involved in their local


communities. In a 1997 Police Foundation survey, all police departments in the U.S. with


populations greater than 100,000 who responded reported that they had adopted COP, with 85%


of the total sample claiming that they had adopted or planned to adopt it (Skogan, 2004). Such


policing efforts, have been touted by community leaders and police officials as being an effective


tool against crime and disorder. However, research conducted in the Journal of Experimental


Criminology suggest that community policing strategies have positive effects on citizen


satisfaction, perceptions of disorder, and police legitimacy, but limited effects on crime and fear


of crime (Gill, Weisburd, Telep, Vitter, & Bennett, 2014). Police operating strategies are


constantly evolving during the 21st century. Through trial and error, police administrators retain


policies that work and discard those that are not working for the community or department. The


key to the police staying on the forefront of crime prevention is to be willing to try new policing


strategies. If police leadership is afraid of experimenting with new strategies, then innovation


and creativity will be stifled. Problem oriented policing concentrates on solving problems, rather


than solely responding to complaints, it offers agencies an opportunity to apply the technique to


problems that exist within their organizations, as well as those occurring in their communities


(Eisenberg & Glasscock, 2001). One of the drawbacks to problem oriented policing is that it


takes too much time for busy patrol officers to problem solve each situation when they are Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The


Effects on Crime 4 expected to respond to calls for service at a moment?s notice. The broken windows theory tries to


have the police crackdown on the existence of physical disorder such as decaying buildings,


panhandling, loitering, and public intoxication. The broken window theory believes that if you


do not take care of the smaller problems, bigger more serious crimes will come in and make it


worst. Policing in accordance with the broken windows thesis emphasizes the use of aggressive,


proactive tactics by patrol officers in an effort to insulate communities from serious crime


(Fritsch, Liederbach, & Taylor, 2008).


Hypothesis/Problem Statement/Purpose Statement


Even though community policing increases citizen satisfaction with the police, evidence


does not show it has any direct effect on crime or the fear of crime. Problem Statement


Although there have been numerous studies conducted on community policing methods,


not much scholarly research has been conducted on the effectiveness of community policing as it


relates to the reduction of crime and the fear of crime.


Purpose Statement


Thus, the purpose of this study is to describe the effects of community oriented policing


strategies and its effects on crime. Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The


Effects on Crime 5 Literature Review


Maintaining a good relationship with the community is a great way to build trust with


members of that community. If the local departments do not have a good working relationships


with the members in the community, in which they serve and protect, the job of policing is more


difficult and often times they will view the police as the enemy. However, the police and the


community must find ways to use community policing efforts to reduce crime and criminal


behavior. Stone and Travis (2013) suggest that COP has lost some of its momentum because


some police departments felt unsure of what too ask of communities and felt the


?transformative? power of the program did not live up to expectations. The authors Weisburd,


Hinkle, Braga and Wooditch (2015) use narrative review and meta-analytic methods to determine


the effectiveness of the broken window theory as it relates to crime and disorder. They found that


disorder policing initiatives do not have any notable impact on crime or the fear of crime. The


author?s use of scholarly research determined, when the police reduce social disorder, the


citizens? fear of crime is reduced as well (Weisburd, Hinkle, Braga, & Wooditch, 2015). Also,


when the community takes responsibility for the crime within their community, crime rates


decline. In the article Spatial Analysis of Fear of Crime and Police Calls for Service, the authors


Conley and Stein (2014) examined the relationship of reactive policing strategies versus


proactive policing strategies. Their findings illustrated that when members of the community


have a high fear of crime they are more likely to report criminal activity to the police (Conley &


Stein, 2014). Finally, in the article written by Graziano, Rosenbaum and Schuck (2014), they


conducted a random control trial to examine weather providing feedback from community


surveys on community policing programs would improve police and community relationships.


The research did not show any significant improvements or reduction in crime or the fear of Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The


Effects on Crime 6 crime. In conclusion community policing is a good start to bridging the gap between the police


and the community It however, is not the perfect solution to the crime problem. More research


into community policing and its effects on crime needs to be conducted. Researchers can build


on previous research conducted to find new ways for the police, as well as, the community to


reduce crime and the fear of crime.


References Conley, J., & Stein, R. (2014). Spatial Analysis analysis of Fear fear of Crime crime and Police


police Calls calls for Serviceservice: An Example example and Implications implications


for Community community Policingpolicing. In Forensic GIS (pp. 155-172). Springer




Cordner, G. (2014). Community policing. The Oxford handbook Handbook of police Police and


policingPolicing, 148-171.


Eisenberg, T., & Glasscock, B. (2001). Looking inward with problem-oriented policing. FBI


Law Enforcement Bulletin, 70(7), 1-5. Retrieved from


Fritsch, E.J., Liederbach, J., &Taylor, R.W. (2008). Police patrol allocation and deployment.


Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall


Gill, C., Weisburd, D., Telep, C. W., Vitter, Z., & Bennett, T. (2014). Community-oriented


policing to reduce crime, disorder and fear and increase satisfaction and legitimacy


among citizens: a systematic review. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 10(4), 399428 Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The


Effects on Crime 7 Graziano, L. M., Rosenbaum, D. P., & Schuck, A. M. (2014). Building group capacity for


problem solving and police?community partnerships through survey feedback and


training: a randomized control trial within Chicago?s community policing program.


Journal of Experimental Criminology, 10(1), 79-103.


Skogan, W. G. (2004). Community policing: Common impediments to success. Community


policingPolicing: The pastPast, presentPresent, and futureFuture, 159-167.


Stone, C., & Travis, J. (2013). Toward a new professionalism in policing. JIJIS, 13, 11.


Weisburd, D., Hinkle, J. C., Braga, A. A., & Wooditch, A. (2015). Understanding the


Mechanisms mechanisms Underlying underlying Broken broken Windows windows


Policing policing The the Need need for Evaluation evaluation Evidenceevidence.


Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 52(4), 589-608


Boostrom, R. (n.d.). The Communitycommunity-Oriented oriented Policing policing and


Problem problem Solving solving Paradigmparadigm- What Have have We we


Learnedlearned? Retrieved from oregonstateOregon State: Dr. Wallace Comments: CJ, you have selected an interesting topic for your research study


proposal. However, as you will note from my edits and feedback comments in the margins you


still have some work to do in order to get this where it needs to be for the final version.


Additionally, you left out two sections; (1) Definitions and (2) Research Methods/Design. The


Research Methods/Design was especially important to include so that I could give you feedback


on whether or not you had sufficient information in that section. Running head: Community COMMUNITY Oriented ORIENTED PolicingPOLICING: The


Effects on Crime


You will be expected to make all of my suggested changes in the final version. Please let me


know if you have any questions. The grading rubric below was used to compute your score for


this assignment.


Grade for Week 5 Assignment: 65




Quality of Response


Use of Sources


Writing Level Score Satisfactory






Total Score 30






65 8


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