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This is what I have so far for my literature review. Can someone help me as far as what to includ

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This is what I have so far for my literature review. Can someone help me as far as what to include as far as sub-sections? 

Running head: COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THEORY Cognitive Behavioral Therapy


JoLynn Kerschner


Mr. Eassey


CRM 330


November 16, 2016 1 COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THEORY 2 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy




Youth in the juvenile system have significantly higher mental health disorder rates than


children who are found within the general population (Dierkhising et al., 2013). They also may


have higher rates of disorders as compared to the youth who are under treatment within the


mental health system. The prevalence of mental disorders among juveniles is projected to be


about 22% while it is estimated that there is about 60% youth within the juvenile system.


Research suggests that about 25% to 33% of the youth in the juvenile system have mood


disorders (Dierkhising et al., 2013). Also, about 50% of the incarcerated girls have posttraumatic stress disorder and about 19% of the youth are suicidal (Kerr et al., 2014).


Additionally, about 66% of the children with mental illness in the juvenile system experience


substance abuse, thus making treatment and diagnosis complicated (Kerr et al., 2013). More than


120, 000 children and adolescents were found to be held in the juvenile justice facilities within


North America in 2004 (Sickmund, 2004).


Delinquent behavior, aggression, and antisocial behavior have been cited as some of the


factors that lead to the incarceration of many young individuals, but these issues wane when


compared to the cognitive health challenges that many of these youth face. Studies conducted


recently indicate that there is a high rate of mental disorders among youth found within the


juvenile system (Odgers et al., 2005). These results have made policy-makers, researchers as


well as clinicians to conduct a re-evaluation of the assessment and treatment options which the


youth are exposed to in correctional facilities. A substantial number of studies highlight that


many of the youth in juvenile systems suffer from multiple mental disorders (Ulzen et al., 1998: COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THEORY 3 Abram et al., 2003: Teplin et al., 2002). Unfortunately, Grisso (2004) contends that many of the


mental health prognoses conducted for this population is poor and there is a need to respond to


the rehabilitation and treatment needs of the youth within these correctional environs. However,


the literature has failed to take into consideration that there has been renewed interest in


psychosocial interventions, including psychotherapy, particularly CBT techniques and its


advantages when treating juvenile offenders with mental health disorders.


Overview of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy


Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) represents a unique category of psychological


intervention based on scientific models of human behavior, cognition, and emotion (Dobson,


2000). A type of therapy commonly implemented in juvenile facilities that help patients


understand the thoughts and feelings that influence their behaviors (Turner, 2016). CBT depends


on the idea that one?s considerations, emotions, physical sensations, and activities are


interconnected, and that negative musings and sentiments can trap you in an endless loop.


Several well conducted meta-analyses have identified cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as a


particularly effective intervention for reducing the recidivism of juvenile and adult offenders


(Lipsey & Landberger, 2005). A meta-analysis on 69 studies conducted by Pearson, Lipton,


Cleland, and Yee, showed that CBT did have an association with recidivism rates. Some argue


that CBT is among the most efficacious treatments for depression (Waslick, et al., 2003), and has


been supported by much empirical literature in the past (TADS, 2004; Kaufman, Rohde, Seeley,




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