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BSCI 207 HW #9: Neurons DUE SAT Nov 12, 2016 @ noon 1. A) In a neuron, the sodium /

 

potassium pump sets up the ion

 

concentration gradient. During an

 

action potential, the ion pump

 

works continuously. There are

 

three different types of ion channels

 

(leaky K channels, voltage gated

 

Na channels, voltage gated K

 

channels) through which ions

 

move. Fill in the following table for

 

the five key phases of the action

 

potential. List the approximate

 

membrane potential and the status

 

(open, closed, inhibited) of the

 

three key ion channels during each phase. Phase Membrane potential K leaky Gated Na channel 1. Resting

 

2. Depolarization

 

3. Rising phase ­75 mV Open Closed Na flow

 

in channel

 

s

 

None Gated K channel K flow and direction Closed None 4. Falling phase

 

5. Undershoot

 

1. Resting 2. You can run the neuron simulation from PhET: http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/neuron

 

to watch the movement of ions during an action potential. In the simulation, pick ?show concentrations?. a. What is the K+ concentration inside the neuron and how does it vary during an action potential? b. How is the Na+ concentrations and how does it vary? c. How does this simplify calculations of the membrane potential using the Goldman

 

equation?

 

3. A red blood cell has different concentration of ions inside and outside the cell. a. Given the concentrations shown below, and the ion channel permeabilities (PK = 1.0; PNa = 0.54, PCl = 0.21) use the Goldman equation to solve for the membrane potential. What then is the relative potential inside the cell compared to outside (i.e. is it positive or negative)? b. A red blood cell is not a neuron and so certainly doesn?t need a membrane potential to generate action potentials. Why might this cell have concentration gradients of ions and hence a membrane potential across its membrane? Think back to some of Dr Eric?s lectures about membrane transport. Gated Channel How do ions move? Depolarize / hyperpolarize Neurotransmitter release Sodium channels open

 

Sodium channels close and potassium channels open

 

Potassium channels close

 

4. During this action potential, the cell will depolarize and hyperpolarize. When this occurs close to the synapse, it will affect the release of neurotransmitter. Fill in what happens:

 


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